DAX-1 is expressed in the adrenal cortex, gonads, hypothalamus and anterior pituitary, which gives rise to the clinical features of this deletion.  

Our previous studies have shown that GES activates gastric-distension responsive neurons in several satiety related hypothalamic nuclei; Two hour acute GES at gastric antrum can alter the expression of anorexigenic and orexigenic peptides in the hypothalamus of rats. AIM: To investigate the effects of GES with different stimulation parameters and locations on the neuronal expression of a hunger hormone, ghrelin and a satiety hormone, oxytocin (OT) in the hypothalamus of rats. METHODS: With immunohistochemical technique, changes in expression of satiety-related peptides-containing (OT- and ghrelin-) neurons with GES in the rodent hypothalamus were assessed. CONCLUSIONS: GES with the standard parameters delivered at the distal antrum increases/decreases oxytocin/ghrelin in the hypothalamus of rats.  

This study is based on previously found synergistic effect of leptin and CCK on food intake and our hypothesis on a co-operation of the CART peptide and CCK in food intake regulation and Fos activation in their common targets, the nucleus tractus solitarii of the brainstem (NTS), the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and the dorsomedial nucleus (DMH) of the hypothalamus.  

The results demonstrate that histamine excites the LVN neurons via post-synaptic histamine H2 receptors and suggest that the central histaminergic projection arising from the hypothalamus may modulate LVN neurons activity and actively influence the vestibular reflexes and functions..  

The hypothalamus is likely to play a part in these pathophysiological conditions because it contains sleep-wake circuits that are sensitive to metabolic hormones, including leptin and ghrelin.  

Recent reports show that KiSS/GPR54 may be key mediators in photoperiod-controlled reproduction in seasonal breeders, and that KiSS-1/GPR54 are expressed in the hypothalamus, ovaries, placenta, and pancreas.  

Endocrinological disturbances related to the hypothalamus-hypophysis axis were evident in 6/8 patients evaluated.  

Gross total resection is the treatment of choice since no recurrence has been reported after macroscopically complete resection, but this is often difficult because of the location and adherence to the hypothalamus.  

However, even in the absence of stress, the stress-sensitive animals have lower secretion of the ovarian steroids, estrogen and progesterone, have higher heart rates, have lower serotonin function, have fewer serotonin neurons and lower expression of pivotal serotonin-related genes, have lower expression of 5HT2A and 2C genes in the hypothalamus, have higher gene expression of GAD67 and CRH in the hypothalamus, and have reduced gonadotropin-releasing hormone transport to the anterior pituitary.  

In particular, changes were evident in the basal ganglia, hippocampus, cortex and hypothalamus.  

In this review, we examine whether molecular components involved in the functioning of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis are present as single or duplicate genes.  

In addition, CRF mRNA levels in the hypothalamus were significantly increased in NDP-MSH-treated mice.  

Lordotic response after these different hormonal and neonatal surgical treatments, as well as the volume or number of neurons in facilitatory (ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus [ VMN]) and inhibitory (the intermediate region of the lateral septum [ LSi] and accessory olfactory bulb [ AOB]) nuclei involved in lordosis was studied in adults.  

Here we have used this experimental model in combination with a neurochemical and neuropathological approach to gain more insight in the neuroprotective profile of 17beta-estradiol (E2), a steroid hormone, which has been shown to increase the viability, survival, and differentiation of primary neuronal cultures from different brain areas including amygdala, hypothalamus, and neocortex.  

OBJECTIVE: To study the bio-molecule basis of correlativity between Heart Meridian and hypothalamus from gene differential expression. Then, hypothalamus tissue was taken for differentially expressed gene profiling analysis (Affymetrix GeneChip Rat Genome U 230 Affymetrix). Compared with Lung-Meridian-EA group, among the 175 differentially expressed genes above 2 times in hypothalamus tissues of Heart-Meridian-EA group, 147 were up-regulated and 28 down-regulated. CONCLUSION: In comparison with EA of Lung Meridian, a different gene expression profile of hypothalamus tissue is involved in the effect of EA of Heart-Meridian on acute myocardial ischemia..  

The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), originally isolated from mammalian hypothalamus, is a key player in the control of vertebrate reproduction.  

ADP-ribosyl cyclase activities in the hypothalamus and pituitary were markedly lower from 1 week after birth in CD38(-/-) mice and were consistently lower thereafter to the adult stage (2 months old).  

Leptin regulates feeding behavior and body weight by binding to its receptors localized in specific areas of the hypothalamus. Leptin injected twice daily for 4 days either into the right ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) or into the right lateral cerebral ventricle (ICV) and using Real-Time Taqmantrade mark RT-PCR, mRNA expression levels of selected genes in the arcuate nucleus-median eminence (ARC-ME) complex were quantitatively measured.  

Impaired regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system is a consistent finding among patients with depression, which can be most sensitively detected with the combined dexamethasone (dex)/corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) test.  

We also observed small labeled neurons in the ventral hypothalamus, the mammillary region, and the paratubercular nucleus, nuclei that were not reported as spinal projecting. Notably, most of the labeled cells of the mammillary region and some of the ventral hypothalamus were cerebrospinal fluid-contacting (CSF-c) neurons.  

The mass showed almost bilaterally symmetrical diffuse spread along the optic tracts posteriorly and hypothalamus, temporal lobes, thalami and the basal ganglia.  

Our data proved that FAAH activity did not increase in any of the four regions analyzed, even it was reduced in the hypothalamus and the prefrontal cortex. Paradoxically, FAAH levels increased in the hypothalamus and, to a lesser extent, in the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala, but not in the caudate-putamen. By contrast, the levels of CB(1) receptors were markedly reduced in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex of these rats, although no changes were seen in the hypothalamus and the caudate-putamen.  

Within the diencephalon, VGLUT2 mRNA was more abundant in the thalamus than in the hypothalamus.  

GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone), a decapeptide produced by the hypothalamus, plays an important role in the reproduction by regulating the pituitary-gonadal axis.  

One of these genes, BSX, encodes a brain-specific homeobox protein that in gene-targeted mice has been shown previously to have a role in regulating locomotory behavior via BSX-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus.  

In CAH women and control women AND activated the anterior hypothalamus, and EST the amygdala, piriform, and anterior insular cortex. Women displayed connections with the contralateral amygdala, cingulate, and the hypothalamus, men with the basal ganglia, the insular and the sensorimotor cortex.  

Context: The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a key hormone in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis that regulates many pathways including blood pressure homeostasis.  

This increase after awakening, a phenomenon termed the cortisol awakening response (CAR), appears to be a distinct feature of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, superimposing the circadian rhythmicity of cortisol secretion.  

Overnutrition atypically activates hypothalamic IKKbeta/NF-kappaB at least in part through elevated endoplasmic reticulum stress in the hypothalamus. While forced activation of hypothalamic IKKbeta/NF-kappaB interrupts central insulin/leptin signaling and actions, site- or cell-specific suppression of IKKbeta either broadly across the brain or locally within the mediobasal hypothalamus, or specifically in hypothalamic AGRP neurons significantly protects against obesity and glucose intolerance.  

(2008) demonstrate that inflammation also occurs in the central nervous system where it disrupts activity of the hypothalamus leading to resistance to leptin that is mediated by activation of IKK and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response..  

Five general brain regions contained retrogradely labeled neurons: cerebral cortex (infralimbic and insular regions), rostral forebrain structures (subfornical organ, organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, taenia tecta, nucleus accumbens, lateral septum, endopiriform nucleus, dorsal BST, substantia innominata, and, most prominently the amygdala-primarily its basomedial and central subnuclei), thalamus (central medial, intermediodorsal, reuniens, and, most prominently the paraventricular thalamic nucleus), hypothalamus (medial preoptic area, perifornical, arcuate, dorsomedial, parasubthalamic, and posterior hypothalamic nuclei), and brainstem (periaqueductal gray matter, dorsal and central superior raphe nuclei, parabrachial nucleus, pre-locus coeruleus region, NTS, and A1 noradrenergic neurons in the caudal ventrolateral medulla).  

Adipocytes are not a silent fat mass, but increase the hormone level of leptin, which influences neurones in the hypothalamus, the thyreotropic axis and TSH secretion.  

Prenatal undernutrition induces a variety of cardiovascular alterations in mammals when adults, including hypertension and hypercortisolism, which are thought to be caused by decreased glucocorticoid feedback control of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis programmed during fetal life. Here, we studied the expression of both CRH mRNA and CRH protein in the hypothalamus of neonatal and juvenile offspring of rats undernourished during fetal life, as well as the plasma levels of CRH and corticosterone. At days 2 and 40 of postnatal age, increased CRH mRNA expression and CRH concentration were found in the hypothalamus of undernourished rats.  

Using manganese ion accumulation as a marker of neuronal activity, changes in signal intensity in key appetite centres within the hypothalamus following peripheral injection of gut hormones have been demonstrated.  

Leptin produced by adipocytes acts through leptin receptors in the hypothalamus to control appetite and food intake and thus communicates information about degree of fatness.  

CRF in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and CRF in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) are involved in the regulation of stress responses, and gender differences in CRF mRNA expression in these regions in response to various stressors are controversial.  

Time-dependent reductions of about 20% of nAChR-density in the thalamus, hypothalamus, olfactory tubercle, gigantocellular reticular nucleus and motor cortex were observed post-TBI at 24 and 72 h.  

Taken together, this interaction represents a novel mechanism for the integration of endocrine and neural signals initiated in the hypothalamus and provides further insight into the coordination of bone and energy homeostasis..  

The efferent projections from these two amygdaloid structures to the hypothalamus were investigated. These two vomeronasal subsystems mediated by V1R and V2R receptors were partially segregated, not only in amygdala, but also in the hypothalamus..  

Using immunohistochemistry, PPARgamma distribution and its co-localization with neuron-specific protein markers were investigated in rat and mouse brain sections spanning the hypothalamus, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). In the hypothalamus, PPARgamma immunoreactivity was observed in a majority of neurons in the arcuate (including both agouti-related protein (AgRP)- and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)-containing cells) and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei, and was also present in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, the lateral hypothalamic area, and in TH-containing neurons in the VTA, but was not expressed in the NTS. We conclude that 1) PPARgamma mRNA and protein are expressed in the hypothalamus, 2) neurons are the predominant source of PPARgamma in the CNS, although it is likely expressed by non-neuronal cell types as well, and 3) arcuate nucleus neurons that control energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism are among those in which PPARgamma is expressed..  

The magnocellular oxytocin and vasopressin neurones of the hypothalamus are now understood in exceptional detail.  

The 2-methoxy derivative of estradiol is currently in Phase II clinical trial as an anticancer agent while the 4-methyl derivative has been shown to interact with cytoplasmic and nuclear estrogen receptors in rat pituitary gland and hypothalamus.  

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in thyroid hormone pathway genes have been associated with serum thyroid parameters implying small alterations in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis.  

The effects of estradiol (E 2) on the expression of proteins in the pars lateralis of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMNpl) in ovariectomized rats was studied using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by RPLC-nanoESI-MS/MS.  

METHODS: Twenty-four high fat diet-induced obese rats were used to investigate the effects of gastric band and sleeve operation on Body Mass Index, fat mass, plasma ghrelin levels, and hypothalamic growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R 1a) protein expression in hypothalamus. GHS-R1a protein expression in hypothalamus was 1.5-fold in the sleeve group compared with control group, while it was only 0.9-fold in the gastric band group.  

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were implanted with microinjection cannulae in NAc medial shell and a subset were implanted with a stimulating electrode in lateral hypothalamus.  

The Sox5-null neocortex exhibits failed preplate partition and laminar inversion of early-born neurons, loss of layer 5 subcerebral axons, and misrouting of subplate and layer 6 corticothalamic axons to the hypothalamus.  

The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) participates in mediating the response to stressful stimuli. Within the HPA, neurons in the medial parvocellular region of paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus integrate excitatory and inhibitory signals triggering secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), the main secretagogue of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).  

slc6a4a and slc6a4b are expressed in the raphe nuclei, retina, medulla oblongata, paraventricular organ, pretectal diencephalic complex, and caudal zone of the periventricular hypothalamus, in line with the expression profiles of homologues from other vertebrates. Receptor expression is seen in the superior raphe nucleus, retina, ventral telencephalon, optic tectum, thalamus, posterior tuberculum, cerebellum, hypothalamus, and reticular formation, thus implicating 5-HT signaling in several neural circuits. We detect autoreceptor activity in the pretectal diencephalic cluster (htr1aa-, htr1ab-, htr1bd-, and slc6a4a-positive), superior raphe nucleus (htr1aa-, htr1ab-, and slc6a4a-positive), paraventricular organ (htr1aa-, htr1ab-, htr1bd-, and slc6a4b-positive), and the caudal zone of the periventricular hypothalamus (htr1ab- and slc6a4b-positive).  

In the present study we examined the effects of intermittent chemoreflex activation in awake rats on Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) in various subnuclei of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), as well as in identified neurosecretory preautonomic PVN neurons.  

In teleosts, gonadotropin (GTH) secretion and synthesis is controlled by multiple neuroendocrine factors from the hypothalamus, pituitary and peripheral sources.  

Here we describe a rare nucleotide variant located 460 kb upstream of SHH in an individual with HPE that resulted in the loss of Shh brain enhancer-2 (SBE2) activity in the hypothalamus of transgenic mouse embryos.  

Thryotropin-releasing hormone regulation by leptin has been shown in the hypothalamus.  

The result suggests that beta-actin and 18s rRNA are suitable internal controls for gene expression studies in the hypothalamus, while the stability of GAPDH is compromised, under the condition of a nutritional mismatch between pre- and postnatal periods..  

AVT immunoreactive (AVT-ir) cell numbers were counted in the anterior hypothalamus (AH), paraventricular nucleus (PN), posterior hypothalamus (PH), preoptic area (POA), and supra optic nuclei (SON).  

Npy hnRNA levels were also increased significantly in response to hypoglycemia in rats in which the hypothalamus was deafferentated, although the absolute levels were significantly lower than in sham-operated rats.  

The hypothalamus, known to regulate the autonomic nervous system, is likely affected by acupuncture treatment that modulates sympathetic functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture at the Jogsamni point (ST36, an acupoint known to modulate autonomic function) on expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the hypothalamus of spontaneously hypertensive rat. Nitric oxide, which is produced by nNOS activity, plays an important role in the regulation of many physiologic processes, including sympathetic activities, in the hypothalamus and other parts of the brain. The results show that electroacupuncture at ST36 reduced the expression and activity of nNOS in the hypothalamus of spontaneously hypertensitive rats. These findings suggest that the electroacupuncture at ST36 results in modulation of the activity of nNOS in the hypothalamus of spontaneously hypertensive rat..  

Leptin, a mediator of long-term regulation of energy balance, has been implicated in the release of adenohypophyseal gonadotropins by regulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus.  

The peptide and its receptor GPR54 are abundant in the hypothalamus and have been implicated as gatekeepers for the onset of puberty and the development of the reproductive system.  

Key words: Siberian hamsters, fasting, hypothalamus, feeding..  

Likewise, endogenous agmatine levels measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and hypothalamus were significantly increased by immobilization, as compared to controls.  

Then, we evaluated the changes of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a sensitive oxidative marker, as well as interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and inductible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA in the hypothalamus and hippocampus of rats using real-time PCR after peripheral injection of LPS (2.0 mg/kg).  

At this time there are only few studies examining neuroendocrine response related to dissociative symptoms that suggest significant dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis.  

We also found that SIRT1 protein levels are restrictedly increased in the hypothalamus in the fasted brain.  

The aim of this study was to investigate changes in expression of mRNA for galanin, GALP and GalR1-3 in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, of male and female sheep, to determine how expression changed in association with growth and the attainment of reproductive competence.  

Our aim was to assess in vivo D(2) receptor's loss/dysfunction and increases in microglial activation in the hypothalamus of symptomatic Huntington's disease patients and premanifest Huntington's disease gene carriers using PET with (11)C-raclopride (RAC), a specific D(2) receptor ligand and (11)C-(R)-PK11195 (PK), a marker of microglial activation. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, significant D(2) receptor loss and microglia activation in the hypothalamus of Huntington's disease.  

A concatenation of data implicates a hyperactivity of the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA)-axis in the pathogenesis of depression and its normalization as a necessary predecessor of clinical response to antidepressant drugs.  

This study investigated AVP and OT neural activation in the fetal hypothalamus induced by central carbachol. Intense FOS immunoreactivity (FOS-ir) was observed in the fetal supraoptic nuclei (SON) and paraventricular nuclei (PVN) in the hypothalamus.  

Background: Ghrelin, an orexigenic peptide, acts on growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHS-R1A), expressed in the hypothalamus as well as in important reward nodes such as the ventral tegmental area.  

GLU administration in the stomach also activates several brain areas (insular cortex, basal ganglia, limbic system, and hypothalamus).  

Met-enkephalin immunoreactive neurons were labeled in the caudate-putamen, intermediated part of lateral septum, lateral globus pallidus, intermediated part of lateral septum, hypothalamus, and amygdala of WT mice.  

The lateral hypothalamus and ventromedial hypothalamus are the appetite and satiety centers in the brain, respectively.  

In conclusion, in cases of initially diagnosed suprasellar tumors with involvement of the hypothalamus and extension into the third ventricle pattern analysis of the single-voxel (1)H-MRS can provide valuable information, which, in addition to structural MRI, can be effectively used for diagnostic purposes..  

It is believed that current SERMs partially block estradiol's ability to downregulate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus thereby interfering with estradiol's negative feedback, leading to increased ovarian stimulation by gonadotropins, and cyst formation.  

The findings in our patient suggest that she has patent pathways from higher-order visual cortices to autonomic effectors in amygdala or hypothalamus, even though the results of such information processing are not made available to conscious awareness..  

At adulthood, intermale aggressive interactions in mice, representing a psychosocial stressful condition, has been shown to markedly alter NGF and BDNF levels both in plasma as well as in selected brain areas, including the hypothalamus and hippocampus.  

These results suggest that a single administration of TCDD induced long-lasting increases in CRF, AVP, and POMC mRNA levels in the hypothalamus and that these changes are related to reduced food and water intake 7 to 14 days after TCDD administration..  

Recently, we demonstrated that neuropeptide FF (NPFF) causes anorexigenic effects in chicks that were associated with the hypothalamus.  

However, the profile of CART-immunoreactive cells and/or fibers in the periventricular area (PeA), arcuate nucleus (ARC), perifornical area inclusive of lateral hypothalamus (LH) and tuber cinereum (TC), dorsomedial (DMH), and ventromedial (VMH) hypothalamus at the 0 h ethanol withdrawal time point was quite similar to that in the pair-fed control rats.  

The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus is an important source of brain oxytocin (OT).  

They are in different organs (adrenal glands, hypothalamus, pituitary gland) and have influence on different organs and systems.  

Although the pathogenesis of this and other trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias is not completely understood, ipsilateral activation of the posterior and inferior hypothalamus has been identified on functional imaging studies during attacks.  

OBJECTIVE: To explore the hypothesis that, in parallel with alterations in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system, hypothalamic cytokine expression and monoaminergic neurotransmitter concentrations are affected during the course of arthritis development induced by type II collagen.  

This is consistent with the inability of leptin to act on the hypothalamus, either due to transport across the blood brain barrier or dysfunctional receptors.  

In hypothalamus, sodium ethaminal produced elevated mRNA expression (0.8 units), followed by ethanol (0.37) and fentanyl (0.039). Amphetamine activated mRNA expression for corticoliberin neither in hypothalamus nor in amygdala for all of the drugs studied. The mRNA expression for vasopressin was also not registered for all drugs in hypothalamus and amygdala. Therefore, the reinforcing system of hypothalamus supports the typical reaction on the administration of narcotic agents, while the extended amygdala system includes both the proper reinforcement and the stress reactivity elements..  

At one week of age, only, gene expression for neuropeptide Y in the hypothalamus was reduced in nutrient restricted offspring.  

In both species, GnRH-1 cell bodies are predominantly in the medial septum region of the diagonal band or the preoptic area, with relatively few in the mediobasal hypothalamus; a dense concentration of GnRH-1-immunoreactive (ir) processes is present in the region of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis.  

Furthermore, we detected the mRNA expressions of serotonin receptors and neuropeptides in hypothalamus, both of which participate in the mood disorder. The expressions of serotonin receptors (5-hydroxytryptamine receptor), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) mRNA in the hypothalamus were detected by real time PCR. The mRNA expression of the serotonin-1A [ 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A (5-HT(1A))] receptor was increased in the co-treated group in hypothalamus, while there was no difference in the mRNA expression of 5-HT(2A) or 5-HT(2C). In conclusion, NaB may exert antidepressant-like effects in combination with EB in ovariectomized female rats through 5-HT(1A) receptor, via altering the expression of 5-HT(1A) in the hypothalamus..  

In order to map the neuroanatomic origins of the complex neuropsychiatric behaviors observed in patients with RTT and to uncover endogenous functions of MeCP2 in the hypothalamus, we removed Mecp2 from Sim1-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus using Cre-loxP technology.  

In the adult brain, ar was expressed in discrete regions of the telencephalon, in the preoptic area, and throughout the periventricular hypothalamus, regions previously implicated in the regulation of sexually dimorphic behaviors in mammals.  

Hormones, anti-inflammatory and other hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) linked mediators also seemed to participate in APR.  

Short duration sleep deprivation resulted in a progressive increase in glutamate levels in the PH-TMN, perifornical-lateral hypothalamus (PF-LH) and cortex.  

Energy balance controls the expression of the leptin receptor (Lepr) in the ruminant hypothalamus but whether similar regulation occurs in peripheral tissues is unknown.  

The expression of sbGPR39-1a in the intestine and the expression of sbGPR39-1b in the hypothalamus were decreased significantly during food deprivation in seabream. On the contrary, the expression of the growth hormone secretagogue receptors (sbGHSR-1a and sbGHSR-1b) was significantly increased in the hypothalamus of the food-deprived seabream.  

From E12.5 to E16.5, p57Kip2 expression was detected mainly in ventricular zone (VZ) and/or mantle zone of hippocampus, septum, basal ganglia, thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain, and spinal cord.  

Key words: vasopressin, electrophysiology, hypothalamus, lactation..  

To identify new genes involved in feeding behavior and body weight regulation we performed an expression profiling in the hypothalamus of the anx/anx mice.  

We investigated the expression of melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4-R) mRNA in the hypothalamus of rats after 14 days of food restriction or after a fasting-refeeding regimen, in sham or adrenalectomized rats.  

This putative initiating asymmetric growth in the spine is explained in separate papers as resulting from dysfunction of the hypothalamus expressed through the sympathetic nervous system (leptin-sympathetic nervous system concept for AIS pathogenesis).  

We suggest that in AIS susceptible girls, given adequate nutrition and energy stores, circulating leptin talks to the hypothalamus where dysfunction leads to an altered sensitivity to leptin resulting in increased SNS activity contributing with neuroendocrine mechanisms to: 1) earlier age at, and increased peak height velocity, 2) general skeletal overgrowth, 3) earlier skeletal maturation, 4) extra-spinal skeletal length asymmetries, including periapical ribs and ilia, 5) generalized osteopenia, and 6) lower BMI.  

Intraperitoneal injection of these compounds increased pERK1/2 in prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus, with a maximum at 5-15min and a significant effect lasting until 30-60min post-injection. 4- and 16-fold higher doses of these compounds were necessary to stimulate pERK1/2 in prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus, respectively, via direct 5-HT(1A) receptor activation. Pretreatment with the 5-HT(1A) antagonist, WAY100635, completely blocked the effects of these compounds, with the exception of buspirone-induced pERK1/2 increases in hypothalamus.  

The insulin cis-regulatory regions differ between the pancreas and the hypothalamus, and glucose and Glp-1 regulate the expression of hypothalamic insulin..  

Neurons in the caudate, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, hypothalamus, neocortex layers II and III, and cerebellar Purkinje cells were all immunopositive for DARPP32 in the normal control brains, and the immunostaining patterns were very similar to those observed in patients with MSA.  

Intellect, emotion and intentions, the major components of the human mentality, are neurologically correlated to memory and sensorimotor integration, the neuronal system consisting of the amygdale and hypothalamus, and motivation and learning, respectively. Development of emotions reflects in the development of personal communication and the arousal function of the hypothalamus.  

RESULTS: 1) After injection of PRV, PRV-IR positive cells widely distributed in the spinal cord (cervical, thoracic and lumbar segments), brain stem (nucleus of solitary tract, cuneate nucleus, gigantocellular reticular nucleus, nucleus of spinal tract of trigeminal nerve, nucleus raphe magnus, locus caeruleus, etc), hypothalamus and cerebral cortex in each group. 2) After OVX, apparently fewer PRV-IR positive cells were found in some nuclei as medial septum nucleus (MSN), arcuate nucleus (ARC), diagonal band nucleus (DBN), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) which have close relation with endocrine activity (P<0.05); and rarely seen in ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) and lateral preoptic area (LPO) (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Following OVX, PRV-IR positive cells in neuroendocrine-related nuclei of hypothalamus reduced significantly in number; EA of "Guanyuan" (CV 4) can promote the recovery of these neurons in above mentioned nuclei..  

Orexins are neuropeptides that are localized in neurons within the lateral hypothalamus and regulate feeding behavior. The lateral hypothalamus plays an important role in not only feeding but also in the central regulation of gut function.  

At P20, Fe concentrations in 4 brain regions (cortex, cerebellum, medulla/pons, and hypothalamus) generally were higher in all groups than in Cu-S pups.  

Agrypnia excitata is the term which aptly defines this clinical condition, whose pathogenetic mechanism consists in an intralimbic disconnection releasing the hypothalamus and brainstem reticular formation from corticolimbic inhibitory control.  

Decreased activities of enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in hypothalamus of treated rats indicated spearmint induced oxidative stress. Our study suggested that spearmint probably induced oxidative stress in hypothalamus resulting in decreased synthesis of LH and FSH which in turn down-regulated the production of testicular testosterone through the disruption of a number of intermediate cascades..  

Taking advantage of our ability to perform primary cultures from the cortex and the hypothalamus of human fetuses, we conducted a thorough analysis of erbB signaling in human astrocytes.  

These neural systems are located in the brain stem, the hypothalamus and the basal brain. On the other hand, they are also to be found in the hypothalamus, where serotoninergic terminals have been detected in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). As cells in the SCN are lost with age, their circadian and homeostatic functioning fails, the activity of the hypothalamus-pineal axis is reduced and the endogenous melatonin rhythm is altered. CONCLUSIONS: Dysfunctions in these neuronal networks in the brain stem (especially in the serotoninergic nuclei) or the hypothalamus (SCN) can account for headaches that begin in the REM phase of sleep and affect biologically predisposed subjects..  

Its role in important brain structures such as the midbrain, the lateral septal complex, the hypothalamus, the olfactory bulb, the pons, the choroid plexus, the nucleus pallidus, the striatum and the amygdala, the nucleus accumbens and the anterior cingulated gyrus candidate it as a promising target for genetic association studies.  

The results showed that in cholestasis, histaminergic neurons in the rat hypothalamus developed significant changes in succinate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, in NADH and NADPH, and in acid phosphatase and monoamine oxidase B.  

In the present study, we identified a distinct ascending neuronal projection that originates from the thermoreactive cells of the peritrigeminal nucleus in the medulla oblongata, and projects to the thermoreactive cells of the medial preoptic area in the hypothalamus of rats.  

The objective of this study was to evaluate the perceived stress index, quality of life, and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in women with endometriosis and chronic pelvic pain. Salivary cortisol was measured at 0800, 1600, and 2000 h and the awakening cortisol response was assessed to evaluate the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity.  

Endocrine factors are capital for this entity, as is demonstrated by the presence of estrogen receptors in macrophages, fibroblasts and endometrium among others, as well as the clinical symptoms control trough the blockage of the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary axis.  

Adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) is a well-established clinical entity with heterogeneous characteristics, in which the main causes are hypothalamus-pituitary tumors and/or their treatment. The diagnosis of ADGH should be considered in patients with a prior history of childhood-onset GH deficiency or a history of organic hypothalamus-pituitary disease.  

Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand of the GHS-receptor, is an acylated peptide mainly produced by the stomach, but also synthesized in the hypothalamus. However, its main site of action is the hypothalamus.  

NF1-negative tumours more commonly involved the central chiasm (p = 0.005) and hypothalamus (p = 0.003). Fewer hypothalamus-positive tumours were associated with optic nerve involvement (p = 0.009), whereas more were associated with central chiasm involvement (p<0.001).  

The present paper examines, in adult male Wistar rats, consequences of the association of repeated stress and PB treatment on gene expression in hypothalamus and hippocampus. Treatment with PB alone increases mineralocorticoid receptor expression in hypothalamus which means that PB may thus modify stress perception by animals.  

RESULTS: In order to make a deep analysis of mouse hypothalamus transcriptome avoiding the limitation introduced by MPSS, we combined LongSAGE with the Solexa sequencing technology and obtained a library of more than 11 millions of tags. We then compared it to a LongSAGE library of mouse hypothalamus sequenced with the Sanger method.  

Recent studies have demonstrated that modulation of AMPK activity in the hypothalamus plays a role in feeding. Furthermore, signalling pathways occurring in the hypothalamus lead to changes in AMPK activity in peripheral tissues, such as skeletal muscle, via the sympathetic nervous system.  

Energy balance is monitored by the hypothalamus. Stereotactic delivery of a viral malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD) vector into the ventral hypothalamus lowers malonyl-CoA and increases food intake. CPT1c, a recently discovered, brain-specific enzyme expressed in the hypothalamus, has high sequence similarity to liver/muscle CPT1a/b and binds malonyl-CoA, but does not catalyze the prototypical reaction.  

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) was initially discovered as a neuropeptide synthesized in the hypothalamus.  

CONCLUSIONS: Although the hypothalamus is able to respond to exogenous stimuli, absence of a normal afternoon rise in LH would indicate a hypothalamic deficit in ESF-treated animals..  

OBJECTIVE: To summarize recent advances in the understanding of the endocrine signaling pathways between the hypothalamus, pituitary, and human corpus luteum (CL); to examine the major paracrine and autocrine mechanisms and the key genes and proteins involved in CL development, function, and regression in natural cycles; to review the endocrine and molecular response of the midluteal phase CL to in vivo administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG); and to describe the ultrasonographic and Doppler evaluation of the ovary and endometrium throughout the luteal phase.  

continuous activation of GPR54; (iii) the roles of specific populations of kisspeptin-producing neurons at the hypothalamus in mediating the feedback effects of sex steroids; (v) the function of kisspeptins in the generation of the pre-ovulatory surge of gonadotropins; and (iv) the influence of sex steroids on GnRH/gonadotropin responsiveness to kisspeptins.  

Leptin acts on two distinct neural populations in the hypothalamus: the first expresses the orexigenic peptides NPY and agouti-related protein (AgRP), the second pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). In addition, the hypothalamus integrates the neuroendocrine systems with the autonomic nervous system and controls the activity of the latter.  

Highly relevant to these functions, orexin-containing neurons from the lateral hypothalamus project densely to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which is the origin of dopamine projections implicated in motivation and reward.  

For this purpose a literature search was conducted via internet-based search engines, including PubMed, Science-Direct, Medline, GoogleScholar, ULAKBIM Turkish Medicine Index, and Turkish Psychiatry Index, using the key words, burnout, cortisol, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA)-axis, stress, neurobiology, neurogenesis, BDNF, immunology, and etiology, in different combinations.  

Leptin mainly acts on the hypothalamus in the brain, in which it regulates food intake and energy expenditure.  

In order to understand the functions of carnosine and CN2 in the brain, we have investigated the immunohistochemical localization of CN2 in the hypothalamus. CN2-immunoreactivity was highly concentrated in neuronal cells in the dorsal part of the tuberomammillary nucleus of the posterior hypothalamus.  

Kisspeptin producing cells in the hypothalamus are poised to become the 'missing link' in the sex steroid feedback control of GnRH secretion. Sex steroids regulate Kiss1 mRNA, and kisspeptin expression in the hypothalamus, in a manner consistent with both negative and positive feedback control of GnRH.  

In the present study, the distribution of P2X receptor protein and colocalization of P2X receptors with vasopressin and oxytocin in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of rat hypothalamus was studied using double-labeling fluorescence immunohistochemistry. This study provides the first evidence that P2X receptor subunits are differentially expressed on vasopressin- and oxytocin-containing neurons in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei, and hence, provides a substantial neuroanatomical basis for possible functional interactions between the purinergic and vasopressinergic systems, and the purinergic and oxytocinergic systems in the rat hypothalamus..  

In the developing chick hypothalamus, Shh and BMPs are expressed in a spatially overlapping, but temporally consecutive, manner.  

DNA microarray, and real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that bezafibrate treatment increased levels of Neuropeptide Y mRNA in the hypothalamus at both Zeitgeber time (ZT) 10 and ZT22, and decreased proopiomelanocortin-alpha mRNA in the hypothalamus at ZT10. These findings demonstrate that PPARs participate in the control of both BT and sleep regulation, which accompanied changes in gene expression in the hypothalamus.  

The lateral hypothalamus, ventromedial hypothalamus, dorsomedial hypothalamus, periventricular nucleus, magnocellular division of the paraventricular nucleus, and the superchiasmatic nucleus were not affected by NPK treatment.  

Recent studies reveal that--in mammals and birds--TH effects are mediated by the hypothalamus. New evidence indicates that these comparatively divergent photosensensory mechanisms re-converge in the pars tuberalis of the pituitary, lying beneath the hypothalamus.  

MHC class II molecules are found in microglia of the brain, while MIF is found in both microglia and neurons of the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and cortex.  

The lateral hypothalamus (LH) is a central hub that integrates inputs from, and sends outputs to, many other brain areas.  

Dysregulations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, as a physiological substrate of stress, have been observed in patients with different stress-related and chronic pain disorders.  

A temperature deficit (because of poor recovery to baseline temperature) suggests degeneration of thermoreceptors, leading to diminished hypothalamus-mediated activity in the diabetic neuropathic group..  

The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus regulates biological circadian time thereby directly impacting numerous physiological processes.  

Neurons containing the neuropeptide hypocretin (HCRT, orexin) are localized only in the lateral hypothalamus, from where they innervate multiple regions implicated in arousal, including the basal forebrain. In separate groups of rats, the neurotoxin HCRT-2-SAP or saline was administered locally to the lateral hypothalamus, and 80 days later adenosine and sleep were assessed.  

In humans, circadian rhythms are regulated by suprachiasmatic nuclei located at the base of the hypothalamus.  

The ECS controls energy balance and lipid metabolism centrally (in the hypothalamus and mesolimbic pathways) and peripherally (in adipocytes and pancreatic islet cells), acting through numerous anorexigenic and orexigenic pathways (e.g., ghrelin, leptin, orexin, adiponectin, endogenous opioids, and corticotropin-releasing hormone).  

Recent studies have revealed that the consumption of fat-rich foods can activate an inflammatory response in the hypothalamus, which disturbs the anorexigenic and thermogenic signals generated by the hormones leptin and insulin, leading in turn to anomalous body mass control. Depending on diet composition, cytokines are expressed in the hypothalamus, contributing to the activation of intracellular inflammatory signal transduction. Here, we present the mechanisms involved in diet-induced resistance to leptin and insulin action in the hypothalamus and discuss some of the potential applications of this knowledge in the therapeutics of obesity..  

We also show that intracerebroventricular administration of N-PCT induced a marked neuronal activation in key thermoregulatory and feeding areas of the hypothalamus. We further show that N-PCT increases the responsiveness of proopiomelanocortin anorexigenic neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, and that stimulation of the de novo synthesis of prostaglandins is crucial for the central effects induced by N-PCT. Results support the role of N-PCT to the central control of feeding behavior and suggest that N-PCT, acting probably through the eicosanoid cyclooxygenase pathway, may act as a signaling molecule in the hypothalamus by regulating the activity of anorexigenic neurons in the hypothalamus..  

Comparisons were made respectively of concentration of prolactin mRNA in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland and ovary of the adult female geese at different reproductive periods. Furthermore, the analysis of PRL expression in different tissues indicated that the highest levels of PRL was expressed in the pituitary gland, followed in hypothalamus, and the least in ovary of the geese. There were significant difference (P<0.01) expression of PRL between the pituitary gland/hypothalamus and ovary of the geese, whereas no any difference was observed between the pituitary gland and hypothalamus (P>0.05).  

Systemic administration of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha induces the release of norepinephrine in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of hypothalamus and an increase in expression of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and CRF type 1 receptors.  

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an intracellular fuel sensor whose activity in the hypothalamus is also linked to the regulation of energy balance.  

Local delivery of a potassium channel blocker to the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) reversed the effects of systemic NN414.  

Four brain areas (cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and hypothalamus) were analyzed for EB extravasation, water and electrolyte (Na(+), K(+), Cl(-)) contents, immunostained for albumin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and examined for neuronal, glial and axonal alterations using standard light and electron microscopy.  

Heavy P2X(5) receptor immunostaining was observed in the mitral cells of the olfactory bulb; cerebral cortex; globus pallidum, anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus, amygdalohippocampal area of subcortical telencephalon; anterior nuclei, anteroventral nucleus, ventrolateral nucleus of thalamus; supraoptic nucleus, ventromedial nucleus, arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus; substantia nigra of midbrain; pontine nuclei, mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus, motor trigeminal nucleus, ambiguous nucleus, inferior olive, hypoglossal nucleus, dorsal motor vagus nucleus, area postrema of hindbrain; Purkinje cells of cerebellum; and spinal cord.  

These findings support the view that NA projections from hindbrain to hypothalamus are necessary for a full HPA axis response to systemic immune challenge..  

In the hypothalamus, CB1 receptor and endocannabinoids are integrated components of the networks controlling appetite and food intake.  

Here, we have investigated early neural and endocrine events in the hypothalamus and hippocampus induced by a short-term high fat, low carbohydrate diet in adult male Wistar rats. The release of serotonin, which is closely associated with the actions of insulin and leptin, was measured, by electrochemical detection following reverse-phase liquid chromatography (HPLC), in the extracellular space of the medial hypothalamus and the dorsal hippocampus in samples obtained from non-anesthetized animals, by microdialysis. The high-fat diet had a specific effect on the hypothalamus.  

While short-term morphine exposure down-regulated, long-term morphine exposure up-regulated P-CREB, PC1/3 and PC2 protein levels in the rat hypothalamus as determined by Western blot analysis. Quantitative immunofluorescence studies confirmed these regulatory actions of morphine in the paraventricular and dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus.  

VD mothers' brains were significantly more responsive than CSD mothers' brains to their own baby-cry in the superior and middle temporal gyri, superior frontal gyrus, medial fusiform gyrus, superior parietal lobe, as well as regions of the caudate, thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala and pons.  

In females with regressed ovaries and no exogenous estradiol, neural responses were selective for song over tones only in the lateral portion of the ventromedial hypothalamus, not in the rest of the network.  

Induction of type 2 deiodinase in the hypothalamus may underlie the lack of compensatory increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone.  

SUMMARY: A number of thyroid hormone signaling pathways in the hypothalamus have been proposed, which may be involved in the adaptation of the thyroid axis, not only to hypo- and hyperthyroidism, but also to inflammation, critical illness and fasting.  

In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that food deprivation will increase the expression of mu opioid receptors in the ventral medial hypothalamus and arcuate nucleus (VMH/ARC). Food deprivation resulted in a significant increase in the mRNA expression of mu opioid receptors in the VMH/ARC and the lateral hypothalamus (LH) after 48 hours of fasting, but not after 24 hours of fasting, or 12 hours of fasting in either the light or dark. Key words: food preference, hyperphagia, hypothalamus..  

The present study examined the hypothesis that the angiotensin II (Ang II)-triggered mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) p44/42, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase contribute to upregulation of the AT(1)-R in the hypothalamus of rats with HF. AT(1)-R protein, AT(1)-R mRNA, and AT(1)-R immunoreactivity increased in the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus and the subfornical organ of rats with ischemia-induced HF compared with sham-operated controls.  

Homovanillic acid, a metabolite in the dopaminergic pathway, increased significantly in the hypothalamus. We found that fluoxetine also significantly reduced the expression of ERbeta1 mRNA by 4-fold in both the hypothalamus and telencephalon and ERalpha mRNA in the telencephalon by 1.7-fold. Fluoxetine had no effect on the expression of ERbeta2 mRNA in the hypothalamus or telencephalon. Real-time RT-PCR verified that isotocin mRNA was down-regulated approximately 6-fold in the hypothalamus and 5-fold in the telencephalon.  

Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is the precursor to five biologically active peptides, including ACTH produced in the anterior pituitary, and alpha-MSH produced in the hypothalamus.  

In rodents, prepro-QRFP mRNA is expressed in localized regions of the mediobasal hypothalamus, a region implicated in feeding behavior. Prepro-QRFP mRNA was significantly increased in the ventromedial nucleus/arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus of rats fed a high fat diet compared to those fed a low fat diet, while GPR103 mRNA levels were unchanged.  

Maximum expression of NCAM and PSA-NCAM was observed in sub-granular zone (SGZ) or granular cell layer (GCL) of hippocampus, arcuate region and paraventricular area of hypothalamus and piriform cortex layer II from 1 and 3 months old rats, thereafter, gradual downregulation was observed in 6, 18 and 24 months old rats.  

RESULTS: In addition to aberrant brain structures reported previously in older individuals with FXS, we found reduced gray matter volumes in regions such as the hypothalamus, insula, and medial and lateral prefrontal cortices.  

NTS catecholaminergic neurons relay visceral gastrointestinal signals to both the lateral hypothalamus (LHA) and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH), where these signals are integrated into autonomic and hormonal responses regulating food intake.  

Sleep deprivation increased the number of c-Fos positive cells in a number of brain areas, including the caudate putamen, medial preoptic area, perifornical hypothalamus, and anterior paraventricular thalamic nucleus.  

Imipramine typically increased and phenelzine decreased GR expression in other feedback-related brain regions such as the paraventricular hypothalamus and prefrontal cortex.  

Namely, like all other homeostatic functions, bone remodelling is under the control of the hypothalamus, and osteoporosis is considered to be a neuroskeletal disease..  

Powerful control over both anabolic and catabolic activities have been isolated to neurons of the hypothalamus, enabling large changes in bone mass to be achieved by minute changes in the levels of these central neural signals.  

To determine if kisspeptin could be implicated in the control of reproduction in equine species, we studied the distribution of kisspeptin neurons and their anatomical interactions with GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus of pony mares.  

Both NUCB2 mRNA and nesfatin-like immunoreactivity was most concentrated in the hypothalamus, in the supraoptic, paraventricular, periventricular and arcuate nuclei and the lateral hypothalamic area/perifornical region. Additionally, outside of the hypothalamus, labeling was observed in the thalamic parafascicular nucleus, the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, locus coeruleus, ventral raphe system, nucleus of solitary tract and in the preganglionic sympathetic intermediolateral cell column of the spinal cord, and the pituitary anterior and intermediate lobes. Double-labeling immunohistochemistry revealed colocalization of nesfatin with vasopressin and oxytocin in magnocellular neuroendocrine neurons, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, corticotropin-releasing hormone, somatostatin, neurotensin, and growth-hormone-releasing hormone in parvocellular neuroendocrine neurons, pro-opiomelanocortin (but not neuropeptide Y) in the arcuate nucleus and melanin-concentrating hormone (but not hypocretin) in the lateral hypothalamus.  

For fatty acid synthesis pathway to function as regulator of energy balance in human hypothalamus, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and other lipogenic enzymes activities must be present. There is no available data concerning ACC activity in human hypothalamus. Thus, we investigated ACC and FAS (as well as other lipogenic enzymes) activities in human hypothalamus of subjects who died in car accidents. The results presented in this paper indicate that ACC and FAS activities are present in human hypothalamus and that these activities are 2- to 3-fold lower than in rat hypothalamus. Moreover, our data presented in this paper indicate that other lipogenic enzymes activities are also present in human hypothalamus. The activity of FAS, ACC and other lipogenic enzymes in human hypothalamus suggests that fatty acid synthesis actively occurs there.  

The present study suggests that GR immunoreactivity and its protein level is associated with a degenerative phenotype in the hypothalamus of from 12-weeks old in the ZDF rat type II diabetes model..  

We report evidence for the existence of a unique nucleus in the rat hypothalamus. This nerve cell group is situated in the interstitial area between the arcuate nucleus and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, and is primarily oriented sagittally, in a spindle shape. This sagittalis nucleus of the hypothalamus (SGN) exhibits significant sex differences in its volume and cell numbers, as defined by Nissl staining and estrogen receptor (ER) alpha immunoreactivity (ir), being significantly larger in males than in females.  

BackgroundIn animals, the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin induces increased blood pressure centrally via the hypothalamus, and one study has reported that exercise training decreases hypothalamic leptin receptor expression.  

In conclusion, anandamide has the ability to acutely inhibit TSH release in eu- and hypothyroid rats, acting at hypothalamus-pituitary axis.  

Subsequently, they were subjected to either a single session of the forced swim test or an estimation of serotonergic function in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala and hypothalamus.  

OBJECTIVE: The role of leptin receptors (Ob-Rs) within the hypothalamus in the control of energy expenditure has well been established.  

We determined mRNA levels of genes that regulate appetite, namely neuropeptide Y (NPY), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and the leptin receptor isoform Ob-Rb, in the hypothalamus of adult mouse offspring from pregnant dams fed a protein-restricted diet, and examined whether mismatched post-weaning high-fat diet altered further expression of these gene transcripts.  

The OT content was higher in the hypothalamus than in the spinal cord in animals from all experimental groups.  

Finally, an in-vitro study showed that expression of both gpGHS-R transcripts in pituitary and hypothalamus is down-regulated by GH and ghrelin but not by des-acyl ghrelin, and this suggests that feedback-regulation of GHS-R also exists in teleostean fishes..  

Compared with the control rats, adult rats with neonatal CLI treatment had (1) increased forced swim immobility and (2) increased orexins A and B in the hypothalamus.  

Here we tested the hypothesis that the medial hypothalamus may exhibit unique changes in the expression of regulatory proteins in response to RH. We report that expression of the immediate early gene (IEG) FosB is increased in medial hypothalamic nuclei, anterior hypothalamus, and posterior paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (THPVP) following RH.  

METHODS: Rat models of fever were established with lipopolysaccharide and the effects of RR at different doses were observed on the body temperature of the rats and the content of TRPV4 in the hypothalamus.  

In the arcuate, nucleus of the hypothalamus GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) neurones receive somatostatinergic inputs through sst2A receptor (sst2A-R) and the percentage of GHRH neurones bearing sst2A-R is higher in female than in male GHRH-eGFP mice.  

Long daylengths induce significantly greater expression of c-fos and fos-related antigens (FRAs) in the tuberal hypothalamus of the photosensitive hen than that of the photorefractory hen. The temporal and spatial coincidence between FRA and Dio2 expression, their mutual association with glia, and the attenuation of their response during photorefractoriness suggests that the two events are linked and that photorefractoriness involves a reduced capacity for photo-inducible gene expression within glia of the tuberal hypothalamus..  

In mammals this depends on pineal melatonin secretion and effects in the hypothalamus, but the cellular and molecular substrates of its action are poorly understood. RFRP was expressed widely in the sheep hypothalamus, and increased modestly overall with exposure to LP.  

[ View All ]