Central Nucleus Of Medulla Oblongata


Here we report early projection specificity for multiple converging inputs to the rat central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC).  

Cisplatin also stimulated Fos expression in the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) of the midbrain and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) for at least 48 h after treatment.  

For this purpose, we determined discharge rates of presumably pro- and antinociceptive pain-regulatory neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) following microinjection of various glutamatergic compounds into the central nucleus of the amygdala.  

Whereas WIN55,212-2 induced c-Fos immunoreactivity in a time-specific manner in the striatum, the central nucleus of amygdala, the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and the arcuate nucleus, no significant increases in c-Fos positive nuclei were found in any forebrain areas following rimonabant administration.  

Injections were made into the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC), the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL), the intermediate nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (INLL), or the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (VNLL).  

Rostral forebrain structures like the gustatory cortex (GC), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), and lateral hypothalamus (LH) send projections to the nucleus of solitary tract (NST) and the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) that modulate taste-elicited responses.  

The spatial organization of projections from the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) to the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (VNLL) and from the VNLL to the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC) was investigated by using neuroanatomical tracing methods in the gerbil.  

This central nucleus, and in particular the synapse between the sensory afferent and second-order NTS cell, possesses a remarkable degree of plasticity in response to a variety of stimuli, both acute and chronic.  

These include: the medial preoptic nucleus; median and lateral preoptic area; medial division of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis; paraventricular nucleus; central nucleus of the amygdala; dorsal hypothalamic area/dorsomedial hypothalamus; lateral hypothalamic area; lateral, ventrolateral and dorsomedial divisions of the periaqueductal grey; dorsal raphe nuclei; parabrachial nuclei; K├Âlliker-Fuse nucleus; intertrigeminal region; rostral ventrolateral medulla; lateral parafacial region; and the ventral respiratory group.  

Rats received an anorexigenic dose of PYY(3-36), and the number of neurons expressing Fos, an indicator of neuronal activation, was determined in anterior hypothalamus (AH), arcuate nucleus (ARC), dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), lateral hypothalamus (LH), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), area postrema (AP), and caudal medial nucleus tractus solitarius (cmNTS), commissural NTS (cNTS), and gelatinosus NTS (gNTS).  

This study investigated the effects of MOC activation on the responses of single neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC) of anaesthetized guinea pigs.  

The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) is a laminated structure that receives multiple converging afferent projections. By birth, the crossed and uncrossed projections had reached the IC and were distributed across the frequency axis of the central nucleus.  

Following spectrally and temporally precisely defined unilateral electrical intracochlear stimulation (EIS) that corresponded in strength to physiological acoustic stimuli and lasted for 2 h under anesthesia, we characterized those neuronal cell types in ventral (VCN) and dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), lateral superior olive (LSO) and central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CIC) of the rat brain that expressed IEGs.  

Some neurons in the nucleus preglomerulosus medialis and lateralis, central nucleus of the inferior lobes, nucleus lobobulbaris of the posterior tuberculum, and nucleus recessus posterioris showed distinct CARTp-immunoreactivity.  

Fluorogold was iontophoresed into the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST), central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA), paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), and the pontine lateral parabrachial nucleus (PBL; an important component of ascending viscerosensensory pathways) followed 2 weeks later by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.1 mg/kg) or saline.  

We wished to determine whether neurones of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) or ventrolateral medulla (VLM) convey visceral afferent information to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) or periaqueductal grey region (PAG), structures that play a key role in adaptive autonomic responses triggered by stress or fear.  

Previous independent studies have demonstrated efferent projections from the NTS to the nucleus paragigantocellularis (PGi) and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA) in rat brain.  

They also send minor axonal projections to the midbrain ventral tegmental area, lateral and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei, central nucleus of the amygdala, and periaqueductal gray matter.  

NADPH-d and noxious-stimuli induced Fos staining were also examined in tissue containing PB cells labeled by the retrograde transport of fluogold (FG) injected into the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA).  

The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC) contains different types of neurons and is a source of ascending projection to the medial geniculate body (MGB), commissural projection to the contralateral IC, direct descending projection to the cochlea nucleus (CN) and indirect projection to the CN via the superior olivary complex (SOC).  

The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) has been shown to modulate salt intake in response to aldosterone, so we investigated the connections between these two sites.  

They also send minor axonal projections to the midbrain ventral tegmental area, lateral and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei, central nucleus of the amygdala, and periaqueductal gray matter.  

Three extrahypothalamic areas, the nucleus of the tractus solitari (NTS), the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), all potentially involved in peripheral ghrelin signalling of appetite control mediated by the glucose levels were examined.  

After UCA, Western blotting was employed to quantify CREB-P levels and illustrate CREB levels in the anteroventral (AVCN), posteroventral (PVCN), and dorsal (DCN) cochlear nucleus; the lateral (LSO) and medial superior olive (MSO); the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB); and the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc) for up to 145 days.  

The injection sites for both group 1 and group 2 were located in the central nucleus, but those for group 1 tended to be located laterally relative to those for group 2, which were located more medially and caudally. The injection sites for group 3 cases lay outside the central nucleus of the IC. The two regions of the central nucleus of the IC, distinguished on the basis of connectivity, are likely to subserve different functions..  

In contrast, IO conditioning led to activation only in the central nucleus of amygdala.  

Previous studies have shown a modulatory influence of limbic forebrain areas, such as the central nucleus of the amygdala and lateral hypothalamus, on the activity of taste-responsive cells in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST). These results combine with excitatory and inhibitory modulation of NST neurons by the insular cortex, lateral hypothalamus and central nucleus of the amygdala to demonstrate extensive centrifugal modulation of brainstem gustatory neurons..  

The central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) participates in cardiovascular regulation during emotional behaviour but it has not been established whether any of these effects are mediated through its direct connections to blood pressure-regulating neurones in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM).  

One of the key areas that links psychologically induced stress with the blood pressure-regulatory system is the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA).  

Our results suggest that the GABA activity in peri-LC and PrH might regulate the LC-TH response, and also the CRH input from central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) and/or the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST) might regulate the TH reactivity..  

Intraperitoneal L-NAME (30 mg/kg) given 30 min prior to LiCl significantly decreased lithium-induced c-Fos expression in the brain regions implicated in CTA learning, such as the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), central nucleus of amygdala (CeA), and nucleus tractus of solitarius.  

The lateral hypothalamus (LH) and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) exert an influence on ingestive behavior and are reciprocally connected to gustatory and viscerosensory areas, including the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) and the parabrachial nuclei (PbN).  

CNTFRalpha labeling first appeared in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) by the end of the fourth week.  

After ipsilateral injections of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into the central nucleus of the amygdala (ACe) and cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) into the motor trigeminal nucleus (Vm) in the rat, numerous BDA-labeled axons with bouton-like varicosities were distributed bilaterally with a clear-cut ipsilateral dominance in the parvicellular reticular formation (RFp), where many CTb-labeled neurons existed bilaterally with slightly ipsilateral dominance.  

We found that 90 min after oral ovalbumin (OVA) challenge, allergic mice present increased c-fos expression in emotionality-related brain areas such as the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA).  

The major excitatory, binaural inputs to the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) are from two groups of neurons with different functions-the ipsilateral medial superior olive (MSO) and the contralateral lateral superior olive (LSO).  

We recorded from single cells in the free-tailed bat lateral superior olive (LSO), the first station where ILDs are coded, and the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC), which receives a strong projection from the LSO, as well as convergent projections from many other auditory centers.  

Using these reporter transgenes as sensitive markers for renin and angiotensinogen expression, we conclude that both proteins are coexpressed in the parabrachial nucleus and central nucleus of the amygdala and are in adjacent cells in the RVLM, reticular formation, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, subfornical organ, and CA1-3 region.  

A similar direct and indirect response pattern was also shown by the central nucleus of the amygdala, a basal forebrain structure anatomically and functionally related to the NTS.  

To assess the effects of DVC inactivation on LPS-induced social withdrawal and the subsequent changes in brain activation, we used behavioral assessment of social withdrawal, and analyzed c-Fos expression, a marker of neuronal activation, in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST), hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and ventromendial preoptic area (VMPO).  

A large number of GAD-negative retrogradely labelled cells was also seen in these structures as well as in the primary motor area of the frontal cortex, the central nucleus of the amygdala, the ventral and lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the lateral hypothalamic area, the lateral and ventrolateral periaqueductal grey and the lateral paragigantocellular reticular nucleus.  

We identified olivo-collicular projection neurons in subnuclei of the SOC by retrograde neuronal tracing with Fluoro-Gold (FG) injected into the central nucleus of the IC.  

Similar to amylin (20 microg/kg sc), refeeding of 24-h food-deprived rats induced c-Fos expression in the AP, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the lateral parabrachial nucleus, and the central nucleus of the amygdala.  

By double immunostaining, Fos-immunoreactive cell nuclei appeared in corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-containing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, but not in CRH neurons elsewhere in the brain including the central nucleus of the amygdala.  

Doxapram induced c-Fos-like immunoreactivity in the central nucleus of the amygdala but not the lateral nucleus or the nucleus tractus solitarius.  

Activation of esophageal mechanosensors excites neurons in and near the central nucleus of the solitary tract (NSTc).  

The lateral hypothalamus (LH) and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) exert an influence on many aspects of ingestive behavior.  

The present study investigated whether stimulation of gastric vagal sensory afferents activates neurons immunoreactive for the NE synthetic enzyme, dopamine beta hydroxylase (DbetaH), in medullary and pontine cell groups that innervate the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) in rats.  

The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), which receives gustatory afferent information, also exerts descending control over taste neurons in the parabrachial nuclei (PbN) of the pons.  

Decerebration allows single-unit responses in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) to be studied in the absence of anesthesia and descending efferent influences.  

The descending pathway between the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) is an important substrate for autonomic functions associated with emotion.  

The brainstem materials were collected and studied in an attempt to elucidate the relationship between sleep apnea, and prone sleep position and gliosis in some nuclei associated with cardiorespiratory characteristics, such as nucleus ambiguus in the medulla oblongata and the solitary nucleus, as well as structures associated with arousal phenomenon, such as the reticular formation, the superior central nucleus and the nucleus raphe magnus in the pons, the dorsal raphe nuclei in the midbrain and medulla oblongata, periaqueductal gray matter in midbrain, and locus ceruleus.  

Synaptic terminals in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) from axons originating in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) are known to contain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunoreactivity.  

Axon terminals synapsing on neurones in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) that originate from the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) have been shown to contain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunoreactivity.  

It has been suggested that an opioidergic feeding pathway exists between the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and the central nucleus of the amygdala.  

Tracer deposits in the dorsomedial (but not ventrolateral) medulla retrogradely labelled many cells in the central nucleus of the amygdala, but none of these cells expressed Fos in response to restraint. These data suggest for the first time that the medial amygdala is critical to the activation of medullary noradrenergic cells by a psychological stressor whereas the central nucleus exerts an opposing, inhibitory influence upon noradrenergic cell recruitment.  

In rabbits, raphe magnus/pallidus neurons form a link in the CNS pathway regulating changes in cutaneous blood flow elicited by nociceptive stimulation and activation of the central nucleus of the amygdala. It may be that fast-conducting raphe-spinal neurons, with wide multimodal receptive fields and with input from the central nucleus of the amygdala, constitute the bulbo-spinal link in the CNS pathway regulating cutaneous blood flow in response to nociceptive and alerting stimuli..  

It was found that c-Fos protein was expressed in neurons of the lateral habenular nucleus, the central nucleus amygdala, the lateral parabrachial nucleus in the pons, and the complex area of the nucleus of the solitary tract and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve in the medulla oblongata.  

Similar changes in IEG expression were also observed in the nucleus of the solitary tract, the area postrema and the central nucleus of the amygdala.  

Feeding increased the number of c-Fos-positive cells in the NTS, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) in oil-treated rats.  

Peripheral BT administration induced c-Fos-IR in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS).  

In the lower medulla, RS neurons were distributed in the dorsal and ventral parts of the central nucleus of the medulla..  

Several studies have shown that the central nucleus of amygdala is involved in cardiovascular regulation. The aim of the present study was to examine whether stimulation of the central nucleus of amygdala activated ventrolateral medulla neurons projecting to the intermediolateral nucleus. For this purpose, the injection of a retrograde tracer, the cholera toxin b subunit (CTb), into the intermediolateral nucleus of the T2 segment was combined with immunohistochemical detection of Fos protein following chemical stimulation of the central nucleus of amygdala. Moreover, chemical stimulation of the central nucleus of amygdala induced: (1) a decrease of arterial blood pressure; (2) an expression of Fos protein mainly in sub-populations of neurons located in the intermediate and caudal parts of the ventrolateral medulla; (3) a significantly higher number of double labeled neurons (CTb-immunoreactive/Fos-immunoreactive) in the rostral part of the ventrolateral medulla than in the other parts of this region. These results show that the central nucleus of amygdala influences the activity of brainstem neurons projecting to the intermediolateral nucleus.  

Moderately to weakly projected areas were the intermediate and lateral parts of the agranular insular cortex, orbital part of area 12, agranular and dysgranular part of the temporal pole cortex (TPa-g), auditory temporal cortex, lateral and medial (MS) septal nuclei, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, diagonal band of Broca, substantia innominata, and medial preoptic area, dorsomedial, lateral, and posterior hypothalamic nuclei, magnocellular lateral basal and lateral amygdaloid nuclei, paratenial, paraventricular (PV), inter-antero-medial (IAM), reticular, central medial (CeM), parafascicular (PF) and limitans nuclei of the thalamus, lateral habenular nucleus, pedunculo-pontine nucleus, dorsal part of the lateral lemniscal nucleus, ventral tegmental area (VTA), dorsal raphe, superior central nucleus, medial and lateral parabrachial nuclei (PBl) and nucleus locus coeruleus (LC).  

When animals received three rather than one conditioning trial, significant FLI was seen not only in the iNTS but also in the parabrachial nucleus (PBN), and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA), regions thought to be important in taste aversion learning..  

According to this specification, it is proposed that initiation of vocalization takes place via the parvocellular reticular formation; vocal pattern control is mainly brought about by the parvocellular reticular formation, Ab, solitary tract nucleus and spinal trigeminal nucleus; expiratory control and respiratory-laryngeal coordination is carried out by the RAb, Ab and central nucleus of the reticular formation; vocalization-specific postural adjustments are carried out via the vestibular and cuneate nuclei..  

Olivary projections are the predominant afferents to the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. Electron microscopic observations of axonal endings in the central nucleus suggest that the ipsilateral medial superior olive and contralateral lateral superior olive make excitatory synapses. In contrast, the axons from the ipsilateral lateral superior olive to the central nucleus contain glycine and have a morphology consistent with inhibitory synapses.  

Stimulation of the central nucleus and the external cortex of the IC in paralysed guinea pigs, both contra- and ipsilaterally to the test cochlea, resulted in a small increase of the cochlear microphonic amplitude and a small decrease of the compound action potential (CAP) amplitude, the latter equivalent to a 3-6 dB change in acoustic input.  

To analyze the intrinsic organization of the SPON and to gain further insight into its relationship with the inferior colliculus, the neuroanatomical tracers biotinylated dextran and horseradish peroxidase were unilaterally injected into different regions of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of adult albino rats. Our results confirm that the projection from the SPON to the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus is nearly exclusively ipsilateral and strictly topographic.  

Here, these projections were investigated by injecting anterograde tracer, Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin, into the different divisions of the central nucleus of the amygdala in 13 rats. We found that (1) the dorsal aspect of the medial division of the central nucleus provided moderate projections to the dorsal vagal complex; (2) the heaviest projections terminated in the parvicellular and medial divisions of the nucleus of the solitary tract.  

The central nucleus of the amygdala is involved in the modulation of autonomic, somatic and endocrine functions, as well as behavioural responses to stressful stimuli. Following injection of biotin dextran amine into the central nucleus of the amygdala, anterogradely labelled axons and varicosities were found throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the nucleus of the solitary tract, particularly in the medial, ventral and ventrolateral subnuclei. Immunolabelling of serial sections with antibodies to glutamate showed that none of these axon terminals contained high enough densities of gold particle labelling to suggest that they contained other than low metabolic levels of glutamate immunoreactivity.These results provide conclusive evidence for a GABAergic pathway from the central nucleus of the amygdala to the nucleus of the solitary tract. This GABAergic projection may provide a substrate for inhibition of lower brain stem visceral reflexes, including baroreflex inhibition, through which the central nucleus of the amygdala could participate in cardiovascular regulation related to emotional behaviour and the defence reaction..  

AI, AAF, DP and VP project to all three subdivisions of the inferior colliculus, namely the dorsal cortex, external cortex and central nucleus ipsilaterally and to the dorsal and external cortex contralaterally.  

The olivary pretectal nucleus (OPN) is the first central nucleus in the pupillary light reflex arc (PLR).  

Double immunofluorescence labelling revealed that LiCl causes a coordinate upregulation of c-Fos, FosB and JunB, and these proteins are colocalized in a majority of cells examined in NTS, parabrachial nucleus (PBN), and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA).  

In the present study we examined the role of the central nucleus of the amygdala in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to an immune challenge in the form of systemic administration of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (1 microg/kg).  

Orexin A was found to enhance food intake when injected into four hypothalamic sites, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the dorsomedial nucleus (DMN), LH and the perifornical area, but was ineffective in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), the ventromedial nucleus (VMN), and the preoptic area (POA) as well as the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS).  

In particular the central nucleus of the amygdala, a projection area of the parabrachial nucleus, appears to be crucial for eating in response to decreased fatty acid oxidation.  

The relative contribution of serotonin (5HT) neurotransmission within the medulla (rostral ventromedial medulla) and forebrain (amygdaloid central nucleus and nucleus parafascicularis thalami) to the antinociceptive action of morphine microinjected into the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vPAG) was evaluated.  

Opioids acting at mu-opioid receptors (MORs) within the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) potently modulate autonomic functions that are also known to be influenced by inputs from the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA).  

Ascending neurons were identified by injection of cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) into the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC), descending neurons were labeled by application of Fluoro-Gold (FG) into the scala tympani of the cochlea, ipsilaterally to the IC injection.  

Following acute restraint (1 session), preproGAL mRNA expression was significantly increased by approximately 135% in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA; P<0.05) in WKY.  

DFEN-induced Fos-ir was reduced greatly in the PVN of APX rats, but appeared normal in several other regions surveyed, including the central nucleus of the amygdala and the dorsal striatum.  

In the inferior colliculi, CD15 was poorly expressed in the central nucleus from 13 to 23 weeks of gestation and later with moderate levels until birth. In many of the auditory pathway structures (e.g., ventral cochlear nucleus and central nucleus of the inferior colliculus), a heterogeneous pattern of CD15 expression in the form of repeating parallel bands, possibly related to tonotopic organization, became transiently apparent around 23 weeks of gestation, whereas in the magnocellular part of the medial geniculate nucleus, a striking modular or compartmental arrangement of immunoreactive structures (which could also be associated with tonotopic organization) was also noted at about 23 weeks of gestation.  

Immunoreactive neurons were observed in the superior central nucleus, the pericentral division of the dorsal tegmental nucleus, the interpeduncular nucleus, the nucleus incertus and the dorsal raphe nucleus.  

For psychological stressors such as conditioned fear, the neural circuits mediating neuroendocrine responses involve cortical activation of the basolateral amygdala, which in turn activates the central nucleus of the amygdala.  

central nucleus of amygdala (CNA) projections from the waist area were primarily from posterior tongue responsive sites in VL and terminated in the central medial and lateral CNA subnuclei; external region projections were distributed to the capsular region of CNA.  

The central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA) and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) are important in the regulation of ingestive behavior.  

The sham-lesioned animals responded to IL-1 with large elevations in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels in the plasma and c-fos mRNA levels in cells of the AP, NTS, central nucleus of the amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and meninges.  

The above mentioned forebrain areas together with several other hypothalamic nuclei as well as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the central nucleus of the amygdala and the substantia innominata, seem to be the widespread anatomical basis for the central regulation of salivary gland function..  

Decerebration eliminated significant 2,5-AM-induced Fos-li responses in forebrain structures, including the paraventricular nucleus, supraoptic nucleus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and central nucleus of the amygdala.  

These neurons were identified by retrograde axonal transport of the neuronal tracers fluoro-gold upon application to the cochlea and cholera toxin B subunit injected into the central nucleus of the IC.  

4.1.1 central nucleus: The central nucleus is the amygdaloid nucleus receiving the most dense catecholaminergic innervation. In the medial central nucleus, dopaminergic, noradrenergic and adrenergic terminal plexus overlap, in the central lateral central nucleus mainly dopaminergic plexus are found. The lateral capsular central nucleus is generally scarcely innervated, but individual neurons of this subnucleus possess a dense dopaminergic innervation. The catecholaminergic innervation of the medial central nucleus is directed preferentially at peripheral neuronal structures, and has thus presumably modulatory functions. Adrenergic and the majority of noradrenergic afferent fibers to the medial central nucleus originate from cell groups in the medulla oblongata and contain high levels of NPY. GAD mRNA-detection suggests that most target neurons of catecholaminergic afferent fibers are capable of synthesizing GABA in the medial central nucleus. In the posteroventral medial central nucleus, on the other hand, enkephalin mRNA-r and dopamine-2-receptor subtype mRNA-reactive neurons show a similar distribution as the GAD mRNA-reactive ones. Contacts could be shown between dopaminergic, noradrenergic and adrenergic axons and NPY- and somatostatin-immunoreactive neurons which are supposedly among the brainstem projection neurons of the medial central nucleus. The dopaminergic innervation of the central lateral central nucleus resembles that of the neighboring striatum in many respects. The innervation does not appear to be targeted at one specific neurochemical type of neuron in the central lateral central nucleus, but rather contacts somatostatin- and neurotensin-immunoreactive neurons (which are possibly also GABAergic), in addition to GABA/enkephalin-synthesizing and other (e.g., CHAT-immunoreactive) neurons. Individual neurons of the central lateral central nucleus express the dopamine-2-receptor subtype mRNA. The dopaminergic fiber baskets of the lateral capsular central nucleus are found surrounding enkephalin mRNA-reactive neurons. Some of the dopaminergic afferents contain neurotensin, and in contrast to the central nucleus, all neurotensin-immunoreactive afferent fibers are dopaminergic.  

The projections to physiologically defined tonotopic regions of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) from the adult rat's superior olivary complex (SOC) and lateral lemniscus were investigated using retrograde tract tracing methods.  

One experiment focused on the mPFC and amygdala central nucleus and a second on the mPFC and amygdala basolateral complex.  

In the posterior colliculus, perineuronal nets, which were weakly immunostained, were sparsely distributed in the central nucleus.  

In contrast, other areas of the brain that were activated to express c-Fos in adult rats after 2 M NaCl injection were not activated in neonates: these areas included the central nucleus of the amygdala, the parabrachial nucleus and catecholamine cell groups within the caudal medulla.  

The laminar organization of the central nucleus of inferior colliculus includes layers of axons that may be important in shaping the responses of neurons. The specific pattern of convergence may dictate which populations of axons are presynaptic to layered disc-shaped neurons in the central nucleus. The present results show that layered axons from the dorsal cochlear nucleus and lateral superior olive are superimposed in part of the contralateral central nucleus. Both projections were arranged in rostro-caudally oriented axonal layers that converged in the ventral part of the central nucleus. However, in the dorsal part of the central nucleus, the same layer of axons from the dorsal cochlear nucleus did not terminate with afferents from the lateral superior olive. Within the overlapping layers in the ventral central nucleus, the overlap of axons from the dorsal cochlear nucleus and the lateral superior olive was uniform except for small patches that were usually smaller than the dendritic fields of disc-shaped neurons. These data suggest that the layers may create specific functional zones in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus.  

In agreement with previous retrograde studies, after all injection sites, a substantial to large number of labeled neurons were observed in the dorsal hypothalamic area and dorsolateral and ventrolateral parts of the periaqueductal gray, and a small to moderate number were found in the lateral preoptic area, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, central nucleus of the amygdala, lateral hypothalamic area, parafascicular area, parabrachial nuclei, subcoeruleus area and parvocellular reticular nucleus.  

It is known that the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and the ventrolateral medulla (VLM) project to the central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce), conveying visceral information.  

To test this hypothesis, we examined the electrophysiological properties of neurons in the medial region of the nucleus of the solitary tract (mNTS), a central nucleus involved in the processing of baroreceptor afferent information, in SH rats and normotensive Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats.  

The temporal dependence of neuronal responses in the superior olivary complex (SOC) and central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) were examined using modified forward masking paradigms.  

The effect of microinjection of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) into the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) on blood pressure was examined in Wistar rats anaesthetized with pentobarbital sodium.  

The frequency organization of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) in the anesthetised cat was quantitatively mapped using [ 14C]2-deoxyglucose.  

The first source, the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL), is predominantly GABAergic and has both ipsi- and contralateral projections to the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC).  

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a prominent inhibitory transmitter in both the central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce) and the medial nuclei of the solitary tracts (mNTS).  

We describe the descending projections from the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC) in guinea pig.  

Combinations of retrograde tracing with detection of Fos (the protein product of the immediate early gene c-fos) following electrical stimulation of the central nucleus of the amygdala were used to explore: (1) the connectivity of activated (Fos-positive) neurons in the ventrolateral medulla with the nucleus of the solitary tract; (2) the connectivity of activated neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract with the ventrolateral medulla; (3) the proportion of activated catecholaminergic neurons that project to the nucleus of the solitary tract or to the ventrolateral medulla. Of the neurons activated by stimulation of the central nucleus of the amygdala, 20% in the ventrolateral medulla and 3% in the nucleus of the solitary tract contained the retrograde tracer and were also immunopositive for tyrosine hydroxylase, the enzyme responsible for synthesis of catecholamines..  

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPHd) staining patterns in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) were spatially related to terminal sites of primary visceral afferents from 1) orosensory receptors (e.g., rostral-central nucleus); 2) soft palate, pharynx, larynx, and tracheobronchial tree (e.g., dorsal, intermediate, and interstitial nuclei); 3) esophagus (nucleus centralis); 4) stomach (nucleus gelatinosus); 5) hepatic and coeliac nerves (nucleus subpostrema); and 6) carotid body and baroreceptors (medial commissural and dorsal-lateral nuclei).  

The region of central nucleus of the amygdala (ACe) was explored for spontaneously active single units that altered their discharge rate to electrical stimulation of VLM in the alpha-chloralose anesthetized rat.  

For example, there were almost no preprotachykinin mRNA expressing cells in the central nucleus of inferior colliculus and levels of somatostatin mRNA were especially high in the dorsal cortex and in layer 3 of the external cortex of inferior colliculus.  

The central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA) integrates visceral responses to stress partially through efferent projections to portions of the medial nuclei of the solitary tracts (mNTS) containing catecholaminergic neurons.  

Electrical stimulation of the cochlea induced Fos-like immunoreactivity in the cochlear nucleus, mainly in its dorsal nucleus, in the superior olivary complex, in the lateral lemniscus, but not in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus, the main relay nucleus in the auditory midbrain.  

The lateral telencephalic system was composed of a cell continuum formed by the central nucleus of amygdala, sublenticular substantia innominata and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.  

The output of these nuclei is direct to the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus, where binaural inputs synapse with monaural afferents such as those from the cochlear nuclei. The results show that the superior olivary complex contributes different patterns of synaptic input to the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. Endings from medial superior olive terminate densely in the central nucleus. These data show that the superior olive is a major contributor to the synaptic organization of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. The ipsilateral projections of the medial and lateral superior olive may produce higher concentrations of R endings than other inputs to the central nucleus.  

In confirmation of our previous study, hypertension produced by phenylephrine resulted in the neuronal expression of Fos (a marker of neuronal activation) in the nucleus of the solitary tract, area postrema, the intermediate and caudal parts of the ventrolateral medulla parabrachial complex, and in the central nucleus of the amygdala.  

Anterogradely labelled axon terminals were found in the ipsilateral nucleus magnocellularis, the contralateral intermediate nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, and the shell portion of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus.  

CN efferents projected heavily to the lateral superior olive (LSO) ipsilaterally, the medial superior olive (MSO) bilaterally, and contralaterally to the medial (MNTB) and ventral (VNTB) nuclei of the trapezoid body, the ventral (VNLL) and intermediate nuclei of the lateral lemniscus and the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc).  

Anatomical tracing studies have demonstrated an efferent pathway to central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) from the ventrolateral medulla.  

The morphological basis of how visceral information from the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is relayed from the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) to the central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce) was studied at the light and electron microscopic levels using the anterograde tracer, Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L), kainic acid degeneration, and retrograde tracing with horseradish peroxidase (HRP).  

After CTb injections in the Pc, a large number of retrogradely labeled neurons were seen in the central nucleus of the amygdala, the lateral part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the posterior hypothalamic areas, the mesencephalic reticular formation, the nucleus locus subcoeruleus, the nucleus pontis caudalis, other portions of the Pc, the nucleus reticularis dorsalis, the trigeminal sensory complex, and the nucleus of the solitary tract. We further found that the Pc receives 1) serotoninergic afferents from the raphe dorsalis, magnus, and obscurus nuclei; 2) noradrenergic inputs from the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum; 3) cholinergic afferents from the lateral medullary reticular formation; 4) substance P-like afferents from the central nucleus of the amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, periaqueductal gray, and nucleus of the solitary tract; and 5) methionine-enkephalin-like projections from the periaqueductal gray, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the lateral pontine and medullary reticular formation, and the spinal trigeminal nucleus.  

Experiments were done to investigate whether catecholaminergic neurons within the ventrolateral medulla (VLM) send collateral axonal projections to the central nucleus of the amygdala (ACe) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST).  

Several cell groups known to be involved in central visceromotor regulation also displayed comparable time- and dose-related activation to systemic IL-1, including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the central nucleus of the amygdala, the lateral parabrachial nucleus, and cell groups of the dorsomedial and ventrolateral medulla.  

PHA-L was injected unilaterally into the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of adult rats 5-9 days prior to injection of CT-B or CT-HRP into either the contralateral or the ipsilateral cochlea.  

In the first series of experiments, injections of FG were made into regions of the central nucleus of the amygdala (ACe) where dense TH and PNMT immunoreactivity was previously observed, and then sections of the brainstem were processed for TH and PNMT immunoreactivity.  

In this study, we have employed triple fluorescent-labelling to reveal the distribution of catecholaminergic neurons within three brainstem areas which supply branching collateral input to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA) and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN): the ventrolateral medulla (VLM), the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and the locus coeruleus (LC).  

The central nucleus of the IC projects in a topographic order to the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DLL), the rostral periolivary nucleus (RPO), the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body (VNTB), and the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN).  

After a recovery period of at least two weeks, neural responses to pure tone pulses were recorded from the inferior colliculus with tungsten microelectrodes inserted into the central nucleus.  

Immunoreactivity in the inferior colliculus was primarily limited to the paracentral nuclei, with only an occasional labeled cell in the central nucleus.  

Injections of yohimbine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) into rats led to the induction of Fos-LI in areas with a dense alpha 2-adrenoceptor binding such as the locus coeruleus, the bed nucleus of stria terminalis, the central nucleus of amygdaloid complex, the paraventricular nucleus, the nucleus tractus solitarius, and ventrolateral medulla oblongata.  

After a recovery period of approximately one month, physiological recordings were made with tungsten micro-electrodes from the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of animals with SOC lesions.  

In the telencephalon, PRV-positive cell bodies were observed in the substantia innominata, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and central nucleus of the amygdala.  

Previous work has shown that lesions of the central nucleus of the amygdala block fear-potentiated acoustic startle and that electrical simulation of the central nucleus enhances acoustic startle in rats. In the present study, the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin was used to identify and delineate the course of a direct projection from the central nucleus of the amygdala to the nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis, a nucleus in the acoustic startle circuit. Experiments using the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold confirmed this and indicated that the rostral part of the medial subdivision of the central nucleus of the amygdala contains the cells that project to the startle circuit.  

Fear-potentiated startle in the rat is a measure of conditioned fear that is blocked by lesions of the central nucleus of the amygdala. In a companion study, Rosen, Hitchcock, Sananes, Miserendino, and Davis (1991) demonstrated a direct anatomical projection from the central nucleus to the brainstem startle reflex circuit. Although synaptic relays have not been ruled out entirely, the data suggest that the direct projection from the central nucleus of the amygdala to the startle circuit mediates the expression of fear-potentiated startle. These findings are consistent with the literature indicating that efferent projections from the central nucleus to various brainstem structures are involved in the expression of several conditioned fear responses..  

Labeled cells were more common in the caudal half of the central nucleus, and in the external nucleus and dorsal cortex.  

Integrity of fibers in the trapezoid body and other decussating pathways of the auditory lower brain-stem was confirmed by retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) following large injections of the enzyme into the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus.  

The results suggested that the SSN receives direct afferents from the central nucleus of the amygdala with ipsilateral predominance.  

Projections originating bilaterally in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus terminated in the deep layers of dorsal cochlear nucleus.  

Previous studies have focused on the role of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) in cardiovascular and other amygdaloid functions.  

A single 0.1-msec pulse was delivered to the central nucleus of the amygdala at various times before the onset of a 1-msec pulse in various sites in the startle pathway.  

We looked for physiological abnormalities in the binaural interaction of cells in three albino cats by recording from single cells in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus to ITDs of tones and noise.  

This study focuses on the involvement of catecholamines and nine different peptides in efferents of the nucleus of the solitary tract to the central nucleus of the amygdala, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and different parabrachial and hypothalamic nuclei in the rat.  

Numerous E2-concentrating neurons were identified that send axons directly to the medulla; the majority were found in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, central nucleus of the amygdala, and the central gray. Over one-third of the E2-concentrating neurons found in the central nucleus of the amygdala coursed to the medulla.  

Light and electron microscope studies on normal and experimental material in the lateral superior olive (LSO) of cat revealed the presence of three types of neurons: (i) fusiform cells characterized by the large number of terminals articulating with them and projecting to the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus (NLL) and central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC) (ii) marginal cells embedded in the neuropil of the fibrous capsule and sharing input and output characteristics with the fusiform neurons (iii) multipolar cells with spinous dendrites, local axonal spread and synaptic relation restricted to few afferents only.  

One concentration of labeled cells is in the dorsomedial medulla and includes the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (X), and an area ventral to X in a region of the reticular formation (RF) known as the central nucleus dorsalis (CnD) of the medulla.  

Electrical stimulation of the central nucleus of the amygdala (ACe) in anesthetized animals produces a decrease in arterial pressure (AP) as a result of an overall decrease in peripheral resistance.  

Neurons that are immunopositive for phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (S-adenosyl-L-methionine:phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase, EC 2.1.1.29) are present in the central nucleus of the amygdala as well as in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.  

In untreated animals, the highest concentrations of prolactin-fibers were observed: (i) in the external layers of the median eminence where they exhibited close contact with blood vessels, and (ii) in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and in the central nucleus of the amygdala where they closely surrounded unlabeled perikarya.  

The LSO, DMSO, and VMSO all project to the ventral two-thirds of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus, and their targets are approximately coextensive.  

After injections of CT confined to the Mc, we found that the major afferents to the Mc arise from: (1) the lateral part of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the nucleus of the anterior commissure, the preoptic area, the central nucleus of the amygdala, the posterior hypothalamus, and the nucleus of the fields of Forel; (2) the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, the mesencephalic reticular formation, and the ventrolateral part of the periaqueductal grey; (3) the nuclei locus coeruleus alpha (LC alpha), peri-LC alpha, locus subcoeruleus, and reticularis pontis oralis and caudalis; (4) the caudal raphe nuclei; and (5) the nucleus reticularis ventralis of the medulla.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).  

Two other frequency representations are present in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of the mustache bat, the anterolateral division in which there is an orderly progression of frequencies from 59 down to 20 kHz, and the medial division in which frequencies from 63-120 kHz are represented. Deposits of HRP in the DPD labeled cells in each of the lower brainstem auditory nuclei that have previously been shown to project to the entire central nucleus of the inferior colliculus.  

Adrenergic perikarya are located mainly in the rostral medulla, as in lower animals, and contribute a subset of axons to the main longitudinal catecholaminergic bundle which runs through the medulla oblongata, pons and midbrain such as the dorsal part of the central nucleus of the medulla oblongata, the parvocellular reticular formation ventromedial to the facial nerve and ventrolateral to the locus coeruleus.  

Reciprocal connections between the central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA) and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) have been implied from anatomical studies in the rat and physiological studies in other species.  

The findings indicated that LSO projected bilaterally to the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus as well as to the ventrolateral and rostral pole nuclei. In the central nucleus a larger medial component of the projection ended in pars medialis and centralis.  

The neurones of the latter chiefly run to the contralateral superior olivary complex (SOC), whereas the neurones of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) terminate mainly in the central nucleus of the contralateral inferior colliculus (IC). the neurones of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus terminate in the ventral nucleus of the medial geniculate body.  

Labeled bands of axons are seen in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus, parallel to the fibrodendritic laminae, and in layers 3 and 4 of the dorsal cortex. Together, bilateral inputs from the anteroventral cochlear nucleus can account for a third of the endings with round synaptic vesicles in pars lateralis of the central nucleus.  

The results show that the target of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) is the ventral and lateral two thirds of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) projects to the entire central nucleus of the inferior colliculus and does so in a more diffuse manner than does the AVCN. The DCN also sends sparse projections beyond the central nucleus into dorsal parts of the pericentral area.  

Binaural neurones were recorded in the central nucleus of the cat inferior colliculus and were stimulated with tone and noise bursts.  

Recent findings suggest that descending projections from the amygdaloid central nucleus (ACE) to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) may modulate the baroreceptor reflex and thereby facilitate the expression of the bradycardiac conditioned response (CR) in rabbits.  

DYN B cell bodies were present in nonpyramidal cells of neo- and allocortices, medium-sized cells of the caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, lateral part of the central nucleus of the amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, preoptic area, and in sectors of nearly every hypothalamic nucleus and area, medial pretectal area, and nucleus of the optic tract, periaqueductal gray, raphe nuclei, cuneiform nucleus, sagulum, retrorubral nucleus, peripeduncular nucleus, lateral terminal nucleus, pedunculopontine nucleus, mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus, parabigeminal nucleus, dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, lateral superior olivary nucleus, superior paraolivary nucleus, medial superior olivary nucleus, ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body, lateral dorsal tegmental nucleus, accessory trigeminal nucleus, solitary nucleus, nucleus ambiguus, paratrigeminal nucleus, area postrema, lateral reticular nucleus, and ventrolateral region of the reticular formation.  

The organization of neurons in the rat central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA) has been examined by using Nissl stain and immunocytochemical and retrograde tracing techniques.  

The colliculoolivary fibers originate in layer 3 of the external cortex and the adjacent part of the central nucleus, particularly in the former.  

Medially directed dendrites ascend into the central nucleus of the medulla oblongata.  

Using the fluorescent dye, double retrograde-labeling tracing technique, separate populations of insular cortex neurons were demonstrated to project to the amygdaloid central nucleus and to autonomic nuclei of the dorsal medulla.  

In both species, essentially the same pattern of transneuronal transport extended beyond the cochlear nuclei to the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC), after survival periods ranging from 9 to 33 days.  

Dense binding was observed in the telencephalon (medial prefrontal, insular and outer layers of the temporal cortex, nucleus accumbens, fundus striatum, central and inferior lateral amygdaloid nuclei, most caudal caudate putamen, organum vasculosum laminae terminalis, subfornical organ), the diencephalon (anterior hypothalamic, suprachiasmatic, arcuate, paraventricular, dorsomedial, periventricular, reuniens, rhomboid, lateral thalamic pretectalis and habenula nuclei, zona incerta), in the mesencephalon (superficial layers of the superior colliculus, central nucleus of the geniculate body, inferior colliculus, nucleus of the fifth nerve, locus coeruleus, nucleus of the mesencephalic tract, the dorsal tegmental nucleus, superior olive), in the molecular layer of the cerebellum, in the medulla oblongata (inferior olive, nucleus tractus solitarii, nucleus commissuralis, nuclei of the tenth and twelfth nerves, the prepositus hypoglossal and the gracilis nuclei, dorsomedial part of the spinal trigeminal tract), in the dorsal gray matter of the spinal cord (laminae I-VI) and the confines of the central canal.  

At the inferior colliculus, some LAC fibers terminate in the pontine nuclei, parabrachial, dorsal reticular nuclei, and the external and ventral medial part of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus.  

After an injection of [ 3H]-leucine in the anterior and dorsal part of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus, presumably in a region sensitive to low frequencies, label is seen in the following locations: ipsilateral to the injection in the lateral part of the lateral superior olive; bilaterally in the dorsal part of the medial superior olive; contralateral to the injection in the dorsal parts of the intermediate and ventral nuclei of the lateral lemniscus; and in the anterolateral part of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. After an injection of [ 3H]-leucine in a posterior part of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus, presumably in a region sensitive to high frequencies, labeling is in the same set of nuclei, but within each nucleus the label is now in a different location: medially in the lateral superior olive, ventrally in the medial superior olive, ventrally in each division of the ventral and intermediate nuclei of the lateral lemniscus, and medially in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. Projections from the entire anteroventral cochlear nucleus to the inferior colliculus are confined to the ventral two-thirds of the central nucleus. The dorsal one-third of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus is the principal target of the dorsal cochlear nucleus and may be a target of the posteroventral cochlear nucleus.  

These observations confirm previous anatomical findings and link them to the tonotopic organization of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. However, the fact that the medial superior olive alone provides between 50 and 98% of labelled cells in the brain stem projecting to this region of the central nucleus is an unexpected observation. This study gives further support to an hypothesis of 'core zones' within the central nucleus that receive preferentially input from specific brain stem auditory nuclei..  

These projections appear to be virtually identical to the ones derived from the medial part of the central nucleus of the amygdala (Hopkins and Holstege 1978).  

Single-unit responses to tonal stimulation with interaural disparities were recorded in the nuclei of the superior olivary complex (SOC) and the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) of the echolocating bat, Molossus ater.  

Fibers ended in the central nucleus and deeper layers of the dorsal cortex in most cases. Though the projections labeled in individual cases were similar in their divergent pattern within the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus, specific variations in the pattern were found. The dorsal zone of VNLL projected more heavily to the deeper layers of the dorsal cortex and an adjacent field in the central nucleus than the other zones. Dorsal injections in the middle zone of VNLL, on the other hand, labeled the medial part of the central nucleus more heavily, whereas ventral injections in the middle zone resulted in heavier lateral labeling. The ventral zone of VNLL projected heavily to a central field in the central nucleus.  

The central nucleus of the amygdala (ACe) in the rat sends a considerable projection to, and receives projections from, the parabrachial nucleus (PB) and the dorsal vagal complex (DVC; the nucleus of the solitary tract and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve).  

In the retrograde tracing studies, cell groups in the medial prefrontal cortex, lateral prefrontal cortex (primarily ventral and posterior agranular insular cortex), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, central nucleus of the amygdala, paraventricular, arcuate, and posterolateral areas of the hypothalamus were shown to project to the NTS and in some cases also to the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. The projections to the NTS were generally bilateral, except for projections from the central nucleus of the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis which were predominantly ipsilateral.  

The results showed that (1) in both HRP and autoradiographic studies the projection to the inferior colliculus was largely ipsilateral, although a contralateral component was present; (2) the projection field of MSO was confined to the ventral division of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus, and within this field the labeling was heavier in the rostral and dorsolateral parts of the ventral division; (3) the projection to the inferior colliculus was topographic with ventral parts of MSO projecting ventrally and dorsal parts of MSO projecting dorsolaterally; (4) the projection field in the central nucleus formed successive laminae oriented from ventrolateral to dorsomedial; (5) the axonal course was via the medial or internal segment of the lateral lemniscus; and (6) some fibers in this course ended additionally within the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. These observations supported previously described features of lamination and tonotopic order for afferents of the inferior colliculus, as well as recent suggestions that functional segregation of afferent connections exists within the laminated portion of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus..  

Axons from the contralateral dorsal cochlear nucleus and the ipsilateral superior olivary complex innervate both the central nucleus and external cortex, whereas those from ventral cochlear nucleus and contralateral, superior olivary complex project to only the central nucleus.  

Following the brainstem injections, retrogradely labeled neurons were found in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, central nucleus of the amygdala, insular cortex and in the infralimbic, prelimbic and anterior cingulate regions of the medial frontal cortex.  

Following injections of HRP in the pontine nuclei, many labeled neurons were found ipsilaterally in the caudal parts of the external and pericentral nuclei, while a few cells were found in the central nucleus. Thus, neurons projecting to the superior olivary complex and cochlear nuclei were found predominantly in the central nucleus bilaterally.  

From these findings we suggest that the POM, a central nucleus in the AV3V region, may be an important forebrain site for autonomic regulation by TRH, mediated through the sympathetic nervous system..  

In the rat, somatostatin immunoreactivity was identified in neurons of the central nucleus of the amygdala that were retrogradely labeled by injection of fluorescent dyes into the nucleus tractus solitarius and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve. The double-labeled neurons are located in the medial subdivision of the central nucleus and appear to comprise less than one fifth of the descending pathway.  

Most terminate in the ventrolateral division of either the ipsilateral or contralateral central nucleus of the inferior colliculus, some terminate in the ipsilateral or contralateral dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, and a small number terminate in the ipsilateral intermediate nucleus of the lateral lemniscus.  

(4) Pontine reticular formation and raphe nucleus--dense projections originate from a narrow zone which involves the caudal part of the dorsal nucleus of the raphe, the inferior and superior central nucleus of the raphe and the medial part of the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis.  

Two neuronal types were significantly smaller (P less than 0.01) on the right: principal cells of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (superior olivary complex), and spindle-shape principal neurons of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus.  

Ultrastructural analysis of normal and experimental material revealed the presence of four distinct kinds of axon terminals differing in size, synaptic vesicles type, relation to postsynaptic targets and in origin: (i) large terminals with multiple extended asymmetric synaptic membrane specializations and containing round, clear vesicles arise from the spherical cells of the ipsilateral anteroventral cochlear nucleus, (ii) most of the small axon terminal profiles - engaged in asymmetric synaptic contacts - originated from the trapezoid nucleus, (iii) terminal boutons containing pleomorphic vesicles belong to fibers descending from the ipsilateral multipolar neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus and from the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus while (iv) boutons containing exclusively ovoid vesicles and remaining intact after complete deafferentation of the nucleus were considered to be of local origin..  

Amygdaloid projections to the NTS and DVN, as determined from HRP experiments, arise from an extensive population of neurons concentrated exclusively within the ipsilateral central nucleus and confined to and distributed throughout a large medial subdivision of this nucleus. Descending central nucleus connections, based upon autoradiographic experiments, project heavily and extensively to both the NTS and the DVN.  

However, in the inferior colliculus, stimulus-evoked increases in 2-DG uptake were found to occur in a fixed pattern of three to four bands across the central nucleus, which did not correspond to any previously reported anatomical or physiological organization.  

The central nucleus of the amygdala is encapsulated by fibers from the stria terminalis and the ventral amygdalofugal pathway.  

Using a Pavlovian heart rate conditioning paradigm, a rapid development of short latency increases in the multiple unit activity of the amygdala central nucleus were observed in response to a tone conditioned stimulus. These results suggest a direct role for the central nucleus in the expression of conditioned heart rate responding in rabbit..  

Recent behavioral and anatomical evidence suggests the involvement of the amygdala central nucleus projection to medullary cardioregulatory nuclei in the expression of conditioned bradycardia during aversive Pavlovian conditioning in the rabbit 6,7,11,15. The present study sought to determine the extent to which electrical stimulation of the central nucleus produces bradycardia in the rabbit, and the extent to which any bradycardia elicited varies with stimulation at sites within as opposed to adjacent to the medial component of the central nucleus, the component from which the projection to cardioregulatory nuclei originates. Monopolar stimulation (30-100 Hz; 0.5 ms pulse duration; 5.0 s train duration; 100-500 microamperemeter) at sites within the central nucleus produced bradycardia and depressor responses. While bradycardia and depressor responses were elicited from sites immediately dorsal, ventral and lateral to the medial central nucleus, component. The results are consistent with previous evidence which suggests a contribution for the central nucleus in the expression of cardiovascular responding during aversive Pavlovian conditioning in the rabbit..  

Tritiated leucine injections confined to the pericentral nucleus of the inferior colliculus resulted in the appearance of dense grain clusters distributed over the outer fusiform cell and molecular layers of the ipsilateral dorsal cochlear nucleus. Injections into the dorsal region of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus led to a more diffuse distribution of grains over the middle and outer fusiform cell layer and over the innermost molecular layer of the dorsal cochlear nucleus on both sides. Dense grain clusters were also evident after these injections but they appeared to result from the concomitant injection into the overlying pericentral nucleus. Finally, injections of tritiated leucine into the ventral region of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (which included some cells of the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemnisus) resulted in the heaviest labelling of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. The results indicate that the pericentral nucleus and the more dorsal region of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus establish overlapping connections with the outermost fusiform cell and molecular layers of the dorsal cochlear nucleus.  

The midline raphe magnus and superior central nucleus also supply a significant fiber projection to the central gray.  

Injections in the central nucleus label neurons at the dorsal aspect of substantia nigra, para compacta, and in the adjacent ventral tegmental area and peripeduncular nucleus.  

All nuclei of the central auditory pathway project ipsi-, contra-, or bilaterally to the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus with the exception of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body and the medial geniculate body.  

Labeled cells in the amygdala were found to be confined within regions of the ipsilateral central nucleus. Many labeled cells were also observed to extend beyond the central nucleus into closely related regions of the substantia innominata and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis..  

2) Certain nuclei of the brain that function as autonomic centers are extensively interconnected: the nucleus of the solitary tract, the parabrachial nucleus, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, the central nucleus of the amygdala, and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.  

When 45 days of auditory deprivation are followed by 45 days of normal acoustic stimulation, there is incomplete maturation of neurons in: multipolar cell, globular cell, small spherical cell, and large spherical cell groups in ventral cochlear nuclei; lateral superior olive and medial nucleus of trapezoid body in superior olivary complex; and central nucleus of inferior colliculus.  

A series of neuroanatomical and neurophysiological experiments have been conducted within the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) of the cat in order to determine some features of the spatial organization of the nucleus.  

Following HRP injections in the posterior hypothalamus, periaqueductal gray (PAG) and tegmentum many retrogradely labeled neurons were present in the central nucleus (CE) of the amygdala, primarily ipsilaterally.  

The medial superior olivary nucleus (MSO) has a strictly ipsilateral projection, whilst LSO projects symmetrically through the lateral lemniscus (LL) of both sides, to end with topically arranged terminals in the ventrolateral part of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC).  


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