Central Nucleus Of Inferior Colliculus


These changes were restricted to the subregion of the inferior colliculus that received optically displaced input, the rostral ICX, and were not evident in the caudal ICX or central nucleus.  

The spatial organization of projections from the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) to the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (VNLL) and from the VNLL to the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC) was investigated by using neuroanatomical tracing methods in the gerbil.  

Here, we use single-neuron recordings from the central nucleus of mouse inferior colliculus (ICC) to study neurons' excitatory and inhibitory frequency receptive fields together with neural critical bands (NCBs) measured in a narrowband noise-masking paradigm at SPLs up to 85 dB.  

In this study, using reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we show the presence of a voltage-gated K channel family (Kv7/KCNQ) in the central nucleus of the IC (ICc) of the adult guinea pig.  

Neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) receive excitatory and inhibitory inputs from both lower and higher auditory nuclei.  

NL projects directly to the anterior part of the dorsal lateral lemniscal nucleus (LLDa), and this area projects to the core of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICcc) in the midbrain.  

The present study examined the effect of pulse duration on frequency selectivity of neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) of the big brown bat.  

This study shows that the recovery cycle of most duration-selective neurons in the bat central nucleus of the inferior colliculus neurons varies with biologically relevant pulse-echo (P-E) duration and amplitude.  

Results showed numerous VGLUT1 and 2 immunolabeled terminals in the central nucleus, lateral cortex and dorsal cortex. VGLUT2 immunolabeled terminals were numerous on the soma and proximal dendrites of many medium-to-large and large neurons in the central nucleus and medium to large neurons in the dorsal cortex. There were more VGLUT2 terminals than VGLUT1 in all divisions and more VGLUT2 terminals in dorsal and lateral cortices than in the central nucleus. This study shows that VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 differentiate complementary patterns of glutamatergic inputs into the central nucleus, lateral and dorsal cortex of the inferior colliculus with VGLUT1 endings predominantly on the dendrites and VGLUT2 on both dendrites and somas..  

The highest levels of neuronal staining are seen in the dorsal and lateral cortices, and the commissural nucleus, making them readily distinguishable from the ventro-lateral part of the central nucleus where nNOS expression in neuropil and somata is minimal. Dorso-medially, and caudally, however, the region of nNOS expression extends from the dorsal cortex into the area normally designated as the central nucleus, and nNOS is expressed by neurons characteristic of this subdivision. Our findings support the idea of a gradual transition in cell properties rather than a distinct boundary between the central nucleus and the dorsal cortex.  

lateral lemniscus, central nucleus of IC, dorsal cortex of IC), they generally exhibited similar threshold versus phase duration, threshold versus pulse rate, and pitch versus pulse rate curves.  

Abnormalities in GABA levels in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC) of the epilepsy-prone hamster (GPG/Vall) were evaluated by using immunohistochemistry, densitometry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).  

Axonal projections from the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) distribute contralaterally in a pattern of banded layers in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC). A lipophilic carbocyanine dye, 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI), was placed in the dorsal tegmental commissure of Probst to label decussating DNLL axons that end in the central nucleus of the contralateral IC. The distribution of labeled fibers across the central nucleus of the IC was analyzed in digital images by comparing the pattern of labeling with a sine model of periodic distribution of banded layers.  

Axons terminate throughout the central nucleus and also in at least three distinct regions outside the central nucleus: a caudomedial region in the dorsal cortex, the ventrolateral nucleus and the rostral pole nucleus. Projections from the dorsal and ventral cochlear nuclei appear to overlap almost completely, although those from the dorsal cochlear nucleus may be slightly more widespread at the boundaries of the central nucleus.  

Although the intended target was the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC), the electrode array was implanted into different locations across patients (i.e., ICC, dorsal cortex of inferior colliculus, lateral lemniscus).  

The inferior colliculus (IC) is the major component of the auditory midbrain and contains three major subdivisions: a central nucleus, a dorsal cortex, and a lateral cortex (LC). In both species, the deep lateral cortex is marked by a transition between the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) rich superficial cortex and a cytochrome oxidase (CO) rich central nucleus. A medial band of axons terminated in the central nucleus, while shorter bands were located laterally and oriented nearly perpendicularly to the medial bands. In the cat, the bands were located in a region that was previously ascribed to the central nucleus, but now considered to belong to the third, deepest layer of the LC, the ventrolateral nucleus.  

Our earlier study shows that echo duration selectivity of most neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of Eptesicus fuscus improves with decreasing pulse duration and pulse-echo gap.  

In the current study, we show that most neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus discharge maximally to a best duration and they have better echo frequency selectivity when the duration of both echo and pulse matches the best duration.  

In the present study, we examined the effects of SS on 5-HT-mediated GABAergic spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) from neurons of the central nucleus of rat inferior colliculus with whole-cell patch-clamp technique and brain slice preparation.  

This study investigated the effects of MOC activation on the responses of single neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC) of anaesthetized guinea pigs.  

The present study examined how a weak noise may affect the amplitude sensitivity of neurons in the mouse central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) which receives convergent excitatory and inhibitory inputs from both lower and higher auditory centers.  

Multichannel techniques were used to assess the frequency specificity of activation in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CIC) produced by electrical stimulation of localized regions within the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN).  

We observed the changes of receptive fields in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of the midbrain evoked by focal electrical stimulation of the ventral division of the medial geniculate body of the thalamus.  

In situ hybridization was used to examine TASK-1, TASK-5, TWIK-1 and THIK-2 in the central nucleus, dorsal cortex and lateral (external) cortex of the IC in normal hearing animals and at 3 weeks following deafening. Three weeks following deafening there was a significant decrease in the number of neurons expressing TASK-1 and THIK-2 in the IC, while TASK-5 had significant decreases in the central nucleus and dorsal cortex and TWIK-1 in the lateral and dorsal cortices..  

The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) is a laminated structure that receives multiple converging afferent projections. By birth, the crossed and uncrossed projections had reached the IC and were distributed across the frequency axis of the central nucleus.  

Following spectrally and temporally precisely defined unilateral electrical intracochlear stimulation (EIS) that corresponded in strength to physiological acoustic stimuli and lasted for 2 h under anesthesia, we characterized those neuronal cell types in ventral (VCN) and dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), lateral superior olive (LSO) and central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CIC) of the rat brain that expressed IEGs.  

The aim of the present study was to determine whether cells in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC) of normal rats respond selectively to complex auditory signals, such as species-specific vocalizations, and compare their responses to those obtained in neonatal bilateral enucleated (P2-P3) adult rats.  

The present study examines how weak noise may affect the auditory sensitivity of neurons in the central nucleus of the mouse inferior colliculus (IC) which receives convergent excitatory and inhibitory inputs from both lower and higher auditory centers.  

The inferior colliculus central nucleus (ICC) has potential as a new site for an auditory prosthesis [ i.e., auditory midbrain implant (AMI)] for deaf patients who cannot benefit from cochlear implants (CIs).  

The complex anatomical structure of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC), the principal auditory nucleus in the midbrain, may provide the basis for functional organization of auditory information.  

It is unknown, however, how ITD and ILD are combined at the site of ITD and ILD convergence in the lateral shell of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICcl) and therefore whether ICx is the first site in the auditory pathway where multiplicative tuning to ITD- and ILD-dependent signals occurs.  

Compound neuronal responses evoked from the sites in the VCN were recorded periodically in the central nucleus of the contralateral inferior colliculus (ICC).  

Averaged evoked potentials were measured using electrodes inserted into the central nucleus of the IC to obtain the binaural interaction component (BIC), computed by subtracting the sum of the two monaural responses from the binaural response.  

The ventral division of the medial geniculate nucleus (MGv) receives almost all of its ascending input from the ipsilateral central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC).  

Axonal projections from the lateral superior olivary nuclei (LSO), as well as from the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) and dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL), converge in frequency-ordered layers in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) where they distribute among different synaptic compartments. Thus, well before hearing onset in ferret (P28-30), three different afferent projections have segregated into banded compartments along layers in the central nucleus of the ferret IC.  

In the present study, unilateral cochlear ablations were performed in adult ferrets to evaluate possible time-dependent modifications of synaptophysin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC).  

Here we demonstrate that despite two stages of convergence and an effective loss of phase information, the auditory system of the anesthetized barn owl displays a graceful transition to an envelope coding that preserves the spectrotemporal information throughout the ITD pathway to the neurons of the core of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus..  

However, no difference in the number of Fos-labeled neurons was found between the central nucleus of the IC on either side, indicating that direct corticofugal modulation occurs only in the ECIC and DCIC.  

The inferior colliculus (IC) can be divided into three anatomical subdivisions: the central nucleus (ICc), the dorsal cortex (ICd) and the external cortex (ICx).  

The goal of this study was to assess if this approach can be extended to a lateral supracerebellar infratentorial approach to enable insertion of an auditory midbrain implant (AMI) penetrating array along the tonotopic gradient of the inferior colliculus central nucleus (ICC).  

Here, we show that the main properties of psychophysically defined critical bands, as measured in narrow-band noise masking tests (species-specific frequency dependence and intensity independence of the bandwidths), are present in single neurons of the mouse's central nucleus of the inferior colliculus.  

However, there is some anatomical evidence suggesting that a substantial number of fibers from the primary auditory cortex (A1) project into the IC central nucleus (ICC) and appear to be tonotopically organized.  

The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) is a major integrative center in the central auditory system.  

In the mustached bat, biosonar information is represented according to frequency in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc) but according to response type in the cortex.  

(Lane Cove, Australia), we developed a human prototype AMI, which is designed for electrical stimulation along the well-defined tonotopic gradient of the inferior colliculus central nucleus (ICC).  

GABA immunoreactivity was expressed by small, medium and large neurons and distributed in the central nucleus and the pericentral nucleus of the inferior colliculus. Co-localization of GABA and MOR receptors was observed in neurons and nerve terminals in the central nucleus, dorsal cortex and external cortex of the inferior colliculus.  

Standard electrophysiology and virtual auditory stimuli were used to investigate the influence of interaural time difference on the azimuthal tuning of neurons in the core and the lateral shell of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of the barn owl. These results suggest that interaural time difference is an important determinant of azimuthal tuning in all neurons of the core and lateral shell of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus, and is the only determinant in many of the neurons from the core..  

After blocking the massive GABAergic projection from the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL) to the contralateral central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) in anesthetized rats, a reactive increase in the efficacy of other inhibitory circuits in the ICC (separable because of the dominant ear that drives each circuit) was demonstrated with physiological measures-single-neuron activity and a neural-population-evoked response.  

During postnatal development, ascending and descending auditory inputs converge to form fibrodendritic layers within the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC). The present results suggest that cochlear ablation after DNLL bands have formed may affect the maintenance of banded DNLL projections within the central nucleus of the IC..  

Effects of carboplatin-induced partial loss of inner hair cells on rate-level functions of neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of the same chinchillas before and 1-3 months after carboplatin treatment were examined.  

We investigated in young rats (P10-P14) the effects of taurine on the neuronal responses and synaptic transmissions in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) with a brain slice preparation and with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings.  

We propose the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) as the potential site.  

Notably, particularly high levels of Cbln mRNAs were expressed in some nuclei and neurons, whereas their postsynaptic targets often lacked or were low for any Cbln mRNAs, as seen for cerebellar granule cells/Purkinje cells, entorhinal cortex/hippocampus, intralaminar group of thalamic nuclei/caudate-putamen, and dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus/central nucleus of the inferior colliculus.  

Previous studies show that GABA-mediated duration selectivity of neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) of many animal species behave as band-, short-, long- and all-pass filters to sound duration.  

The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC) contains different types of neurons and is a source of ascending projection to the medial geniculate body (MGB), commissural projection to the contralateral IC, direct descending projection to the cochlea nucleus (CN) and indirect projection to the CN via the superior olivary complex (SOC).  

This study describes mechanisms that underlie neuronal selectivity for the direction and rate of frequency-modulated sweeps in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) of the pallid bat (Antrozous pallidus).  

The present study surveyed the ultrastructure of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus in postnatal day (P) P4, P7, P14, and P28 ferrets, prior to the onset of hearing at the end of the first postnatal month with the goal of beginning to characterize the time course of synapse formation in relation to the development of afferent projection patterns within the IC.  

Unilateral auditory deprivation decreased glycine receptor alpha1 and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 expression in the contralateral central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. Thus, unilateral cochlear removal resulted in a selective and long-term decrease in the amount of the glycine receptor alpha1 subunit and of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 in the contralateral central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. These changes most probably result from the induced asymmetry of excitatory auditory inputs into the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus and may be one of the mechanisms involved in the tinnitus frequently encountered in patients suffering from a sudden hearing loss..  

The present study examines the echo duration selectivity of neurons in the central nucleus of the bat inferior colliculus (IC) under stimulation conditions of single pulses and pulse-echo (P-E) pairs.  

In this study, we investigated the effects of electrical stimulation of the inferior colliculus central nucleus (ICC) on primary auditory cortex (A1) activity to determine the potential benefits of an auditory midbrain implant (AMI).  

Identical stimuli were used to test adaptation in the lateral shell of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICCls), which provides input directly to the ICX.  

Neurons in the primary auditory fields in the middle EG project to the lateral nucleus (LN) of the ipsilateral IC and bilaterally to the dorsal cortex and dorsal part of the central nucleus (CN).  

In unanesthetized chinchillas, we determined excitatory and inhibitory response regions of neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc).  

It has been shown that electrical stimulation of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) at freezing or escape thresholds activates different neural circuits in the brain.  

BayK 8644-induced Fos expression in Ca(V)1.2(DHP-/-) mice indicating predominantly Ca(V)1.3 L-type calcium channel-mediated activation was noted in more restricted neuronal populations (20 of 80), in particular in the central amygdala, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, lateral preoptic area, locus coeruleus, lateral parabrachial nucleus, central nucleus of the inferior colliculus, and nucleus of the solitary tract.  

Corticotectal projections of both RM and CM targeted the dorsomedial quadrant of the inferior colliculus, whereas the CM projection also included a pericentral extension around the ventromedial and lateral portion of the central nucleus.  

After UCA, Western blotting was employed to quantify CREB-P levels and illustrate CREB levels in the anteroventral (AVCN), posteroventral (PVCN), and dorsal (DCN) cochlear nucleus; the lateral (LSO) and medial superior olive (MSO); the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB); and the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc) for up to 145 days.  

Recent studies have shown that selective electrical stimulation within the IC central nucleus (ICC) produces frequency-specific reductions of neural activity in the contralateral cochlea (Ota, Y., Oliver, D.L., Dolan, D.F., 2004.  

The injection sites for both group 1 and group 2 were located in the central nucleus, but those for group 1 tended to be located laterally relative to those for group 2, which were located more medially and caudally. The injection sites for group 3 cases lay outside the central nucleus of the IC. The two regions of the central nucleus of the IC, distinguished on the basis of connectivity, are likely to subserve different functions..  

In the present study, unilateral cochlear ablations were performed in adult ferrets in order to determine whether an upregulation of the calretinin immunostained plexus in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus occurs and if so, what the time course of this upregulation is. Accordingly, the mean gray level and the calretinin-immunostained area of the axonal plexus in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus were evaluated at 1, 20 and 90 days after cochlear ablation. In ablated animals, both the mean gray level and the immunostained area of the plexus increased in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus contralateral to the lesion compared with both the ipsilateral side and unoperated animals. In a previous study in young ferrets, the immunostained area of the plexus in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus contralateral to the lesion increased 200% compared with control ferrets [ J Comp Neurol 460 (2003) 585], whereas it increased only 33% in adult ferrets. These findings suggest that 1) calretinin upregulation in the contralateral central nucleus of the inferior colliculus following cochlear ablation occurs by 24 h after cochlear ablation and 2) there is an age-related decline in the magnitude of this upregulation after cochlear ablation..  

The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC) is comprised of an orderly series of fibrodendritic layers.  

Data analysis included comparisons across IC subdivisions and across frequency regions within the central nucleus of the IC. The results show that: 1) 25% of the IC neurons are GABAergic; 2) there are more GABAergic neurons in the central nucleus of the IC than previously estimated; 3) GABAergic neurons are larger than non-GABAergic; 4) GABAergic neurons receive less GABA and glycine puncta than non-GABAergic; 5) differences across frequency regions are minor, except that the non-GABAergic neurons from high frequency regions are larger than their counterparts in low frequency regions; 6) differences within the laminae are greater along the dorsomedial-ventrolateral axis than along the rostrocaudal axis; 7) GABA and non-GABAergic neurons receive different numbers of puncta in different IC subdivisions; and 8) GABAergic puncta are both apposed to the somata and in the neuropil, glycinergic puncta are mostly confined to the neuropil..  

The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus is a laminated structure composed of oriented dendrites and similarly oriented afferent fibers that provide a substrate for tonotopic organization. Here, we investigated the axons from the cochlear nuclei that terminate in the central nucleus of the cat and rat. After characterization of the best frequency of the neurons at the injection sites in the cochlear nucleus, the neurons were labeled with dextran in order to visualize their axons and synaptic boutons in the central nucleus.  

Cells that phase-locked were mainly located in the central nucleus but also occurred in the dorsal cortex and external nucleus. The upper limits in the three divisions were central nucleus, >1,000 Hz; dorsal cortex, 700 Hz; external nucleus, 320 Hz. The mean latencies also varied and were central nucleus, 8.2 +/- 2.8 (SD) ms; dorsal cortex, 17.2 ms; external nucleus, 13.3 ms. We conclude that many cells in the central nucleus receive direct inputs from the brain stem, whereas cells in the external and dorsal divisions receive input from other structures that may include the forebrain..  

Our study addressed these issues by characterizing the effects of common methods of tinnitus induction on spontaneous activity in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC).  

The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) receives inputs from all parts of the auditory brainstem and transmits the information to the forebrain.  

The majority of duration-sensitive neurons were localized outside the central nucleus of the IC, especially in the dorsal cortex, where more than one-half of the neurons sampled had long-pass selectivity for duration. Band-pass duration tuned neurons were only found outside the central nucleus.  

The highest density of immunoreactive fibers was found in the motor trigeminal nucleus, the laminar and alaminar spinal trigeminal nuclei, the facial nucleus, the marginal nucleus of the brachium conjunctivum, the locus coeruleus, the cuneiform nucleus, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, the postpyramidal nucleus of the raphe, the lateral tegmental field, the K├Âlliker-Fuse nucleus, the inferior central nucleus, the periaqueductal gray, the nucleus of the solitary tract, and in the inferior vestibular nucleus. Immunoreactive cell bodies containing neurokinin B were observed, for example, in the locus coeruleus, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, the median division of the dorsal nucleus of the raphe, the lateral tegmental field, the pericentral nucleus of the inferior colliculus, the internal division of the lateral reticular nucleus, the inferior central nucleus, the periaqueductal gray, the postpyramidal nucleus of the raphe, and in the medial nucleus of the solitary tract.  

Effects of unilateral noise exposure on spontaneous activity (SA) in the anteroventral and dorsal cochlear nuclei (AVCN and DCN) and the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc) were studied in cortically intact and decorticate rats.  

To examine whether cortical descending function and NB contributions to collicular plasticity are different between the bat and mouse and to extend the findings in the bat, we induced plasticity in the central nucleus of the mouse inferior colliculus by a tone paired with electrical stimulation of the NB (hereafter referred to as tone-ES(NB)).  

This work addresses the nature of the convergence of localization information in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC).  

Neurons immunopositive for TH but not DBH or PNMT were observed in the dorsal cortex and dorsal horn of the central nucleus of the IC and ventral and intermediate lemniscus. In the central nucleus of the IC and dorsal lateral lemniscus many lightly labeled TH neurons were also DBH positive.  

In addition to being the principal outputs, CaMKII cells were in direct contact with axonal boutons emanating from the main source of input to ICX, the lateral shell of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICCls).  

By using basal c-Fos expression as a marker for cellular activation we found a significant reduction in c-Fos expression in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus in iron-adequate rat pups exposed to CO.  

These projections target the central nucleus of the IC (CNIC) ipsilaterally and the IC cortices bilaterally, with the ipsilateral component predominant.  

Moreover, neurotoxic lesions of the BLA enhance whereas those of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) reduce the aversiveness of the electrical stimulation of the IC.  

Both long-term deafness and chronic electrical stimulation altered temporal resolution of neurons in the central nucleus (ICC) but not in the external nucleus.  

Acoustically induced c-Fos expression in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus to sub-AGS threshold tone stimulations displayed a greater level of neuronal activation in AGS-susceptible Frings, DBA/2J and noise-primed C57BL/6J mice compared to AGS-resistant C57BL/6J and CF1 mice.  

Activation spread was estimated by recording multineuronal evoked activity along the cochleotopic axis of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC).  

In particular in its central nucleus, c-fos and arg3.1 IRN were found exclusively after the tinnitus-inducing treatment, suggesting that coactivation of the AC and the amygdala may by an essential feature of tinnitus-related activation..  

The latter was used here to measure how stimulation in the tonotopy of the mouse primary auditory cortex influences frequency tuning in the midbrain central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC).  

CNTFRalpha labeling first appeared in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) by the end of the fourth week.  

In the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus only a subpopulation of neurons showed HCN1 or HCN2 immunolabelling.  

The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) is a major site of synaptic interaction in the central auditory system.  

No descending mossy fibers storing round vesicles were labelled from the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus.  

The results show that the neurones of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus do not react differently to self-produced and group mate vocalizations of the same type.  

The role of potassium channels in regulating spontaneous firing and sound-evoked responses in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus was studied by recording single-unit activity before and during iontophoretic application of a nonspecific potassium channel blocker, tetraethylammonium (TEA).  

The major excitatory, binaural inputs to the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) are from two groups of neurons with different functions-the ipsilateral medial superior olive (MSO) and the contralateral lateral superior olive (LSO).  

We recorded from single cells in the free-tailed bat lateral superior olive (LSO), the first station where ILDs are coded, and the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC), which receives a strong projection from the LSO, as well as convergent projections from many other auditory centers.  

Immunohistochemical techniques were used to study the relationship between GABA and serotonin receptors in the central nucleus of the rat inferior colliculus.  

Experimental and control animals were assessed for spiral ganglion cell densities and Fos immunoreactive staining in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. A significantly greater number of Fos immunoreactive neurons was found in the contralateral central nucleus of inferior colliculus in 5, 6 and 8 week old deafened animals compared to age-matched controls.  

Although the IC central nucleus (ICC) is the major relay station for the ascending auditory pathways, the IC's cortex receives its main input from the neocortex and nonauditory sources. Electrical stimulation within the central nucleus had a sharply tuned effect on the CAP. The frequency region affected within the cochlea closely matched the best frequency of local cells within the central nucleus. The effect of electrical stimulation within the lateral, external cortex on the CAP was smaller in comparison to central nucleus stimulation.  

We recorded single-unit and multi-unit neuronal activity from the central nucleus of the cat inferior colliculus (ICC) in response to dynamic spectrotemporal sound sequences to determine whether ICC neurons respond preferentially to linear or logarithmic spectrotemporal amplitudes.  

The parvalbumin pathway, ascending from the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus, is the more direct and terminates in the ventral nucleus.  

In the central nucleus of the IC, the number of cells expressing a basal level of c-Fos was decreased significantly in the CO-exposed animals when compared to controls; however, there was little or no difference in the number of cells expressing c-Fos in the other subregions of the IC. We conclude that the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus is affected selectively by mild CO exposure (0.0012% in air) and that this reduction in neuronal activity persists into adulthood..  

Neuroanatomical techniques showed varicose fibers from the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus to ventral aspects of the PAG, at more caudal levels. The fear-like responses were measured by electrical stimulation of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus, eliciting the escape behavior, which is characterized by vigorous running and jumping. These results indicate that endogenous opioids may be involved in the modulation of fear in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. The neuroanatomical study of the connections between the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus and the periaqueductal gray matter showed neuronal fibers with varicosities and with terminal bottons, both in the pericentral nucleus of the inferior colliculus and in ventral and dorsal parts of caudal aspects of the periaqueductal gray matter..  

By recording from single neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) of the mouse, we present the first evidence for spatial organizations of parameters of frequency sweeps (sweep speed, upward/downward sweep direction) and of whole-field tone response patterns together with a map of frequency tuning curve shape.  

Systematic mapping of different IC territories (central nucleus, external and dorsal cortex) revealed that stimulation of all IC parts was equally effective in producing activation.  

To examine the contribution of subthalamic changes to this reorganization, the effects of unilateral mechanical cochlear lesions on the frequency organization of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) were examined in adult cats.  

Exposed animals also showed significant increases in the ipsilateral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, central nucleus of inferior colliculus and medial geniculate body.  

The present study examined corticofugal modulation of amplitude sensitivity of 113 corticofugally inhibited neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus.  

The results showed that 3-morpholinosylnomine hydrochloride (SIN-1; 300 nmol), an NO donor, injected into the central nucleus but not into the dorsal cortex of the IC (CIC and DCIC, respectively) of male Wistar rats induced flight reactions characterized by galloping and jumps.  

We identified olivo-collicular projection neurons in subnuclei of the SOC by retrograde neuronal tracing with Fluoro-Gold (FG) injected into the central nucleus of the IC.  

The immunocytochemical results demonstrated a significant increase in exposed animals of FLI in auditory brain structures such as the lateral lemniscus, central nucleus of inferior colliculus, and auditory cortex, as well as in some nonauditory brain structures such as the locus coeruleus, lateral parabrachial nucleus, certain subregions of the hypothalamus, and amygdala.  

Type O units in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) are a primary target of ascending DCN projections and, therefore, may represent midbrain specializations for the auditory processing of spectral cues for sound localization.  

We could discriminate eight structures that belong to the three subnuclei of the inferior colliculus [ the central nucleus (ICC), the superficial nucleus (ICS), the external nucleus (ICX)] and to the optic tectum.  

Neurons in the central nucleus of the auditory midbrain inferior colliculus divide into four classes according to the shapes of their receptive fields.  

Using Western blots, we measured phosphorylated ERK1 (ERK1-P), ERK2 (ERK2-P), p46 and p54 SAPK (SAPK-P) and c-Jun (c-Jun-P) levels in the major subdivisions of the CN, the principal nuclei of the superior olivary complex (SOC) and the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc) for up to 145 days postablation.  

The inferior colliculus (IC) of the bank vole is made up of 3 nuclei: the external and pericentral nucleus, which are located on the outer border of the IC, and the central nucleus, which is the largest part of IC and shows a laminated structure.  

In controls (n = 3), measurements of these parameters in the central nucleus of the IC showed symmetry between the two sides. IC volume measurements and synaptophysin immunostaining analysis in the central nucleus of the IC revealed no statistical differences between ablated and control animals or between the two sides in ablated animals.  

Here we report the properties of monaural STRFs and the relationship between ipsi- and contralateral inputs to neurons of the central nucleus of cat inferior colliculus (ICC) of cats.  

In response to pure-tone stimulation after priming, NB-2-deficient mice exhibited a diffuse and low level of c-Fos expression in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus, which was distinctly different from the band-like c-Fos expression corresponding to the tonotopic map in the wild-type littermates.  

The present study examined the neuronal network for clonic AGS in GEPR-3s by microinjecting a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, D,L-2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoic acid (AP7), into the central nucleus of inferior colliculus (ICc), deep layers of superior colliculus (DLSC), periaqueductal grey (PAG), or caudal pontine reticular formation (cPRF), which are implicated in tonic AGS networks.  

In the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC), afferent projections are aligned with dendritic arbors of disk-shaped cells, forming fibrodendritic layers. One feature that may serve as a guide for study of the intrinsic organization of the IC layers is the segregation of certain inputs to bands and patches within the layers of the central nucleus.  

The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus but not the surrounding regions contained parvalbumin-positive neuronal somata and fibres. Calbindin-positive neurons and fibres were concentrated in the dorsal aspect of the central nucleus and in structures surrounding it: the dorsal cortex, the lateral lemniscus, the ventrolateral nucleus, and the intercollicular region.  

Abnormal hearing did not alter ITD tuning in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus, the primary source of input to the auditory thalamus.  

Amygdalar labeling was observed after tracer deposits throughout the IC, including its central nucleus (ICC).  

Regulatory mechanisms in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) serves as a filter for unconditioned and conditioned aversive information that ascend to higher structures from the brainstem whereas the central nucleus (CeA) is the main output for the resultant defense reaction.  

Decerebration allows single-unit responses in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) to be studied in the absence of anesthesia and descending efferent influences.  

Local injections into the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of GDEE-an AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist-inhibited whereas AP7-a NMDA receptor antagonist-did not influence these responses. Activation of these neural substrates by fast-acting AMPA/kainate receptors trigger the initial steps of the defense reaction in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus..  

Sequential paired tone stimuli reveal age-related changes in temporal processing properties of neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CIC).  

We classified the firing pattern of neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc) in a time-frequency coordinate, except for simple phasic onset responses, into four groups using tone bursts with a wide frequency range.  

Generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS), which developed as an advanced form of AS in some of the susceptible rats, induced an increase in Fos expression in three IC substructures-the dorsal cortex of IC (DCIC), central nucleus of IC (CIC), and external cortex of IC (ECIC)-and in one SC substructure, the deep gray layer of SC (DpG).  

Synaptic responses were elicited by applying a current pulse to the lateral lemniscus just below the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus.  

Our work with the house mouse reveals that the focal electrical stimulation of the primary auditory cortex leads to profound changes in auditory response properties in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of the midbrain.  

gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), acting at GABA(A) receptors, mediates inhibition in inferior colliculus (IC) central nucleus (ICc) neurons and plays a prominent role in mediating acoustically evoked non-monotonicity, offset inhibition, and binaural inhibition, and is also important in tonic inhibition.  

This article reviews our recent studies of brief and short-term corticofugal modulation of signal processing in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc) by electrical stimulation in the primary auditory cortex (AC).  

This study examined auditory responses of two simultaneously recorded neurons in the central nucleus of bat inferior colliculus (IC) under two-tone stimulation conditions.  

In the mustached bat's central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC), many neurons display facilitatory or inhibitory responses when presented with two tones of distinctly different frequencies.  

Amplitude modulation responses and onset latencies of multi-unit recordings and evoked potentials were investigated in the central nucleus of inferior colliculus (ICC) in the awake chinchilla.  

Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were made from neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) in brain slices from rat (8-13 days old).  

Brain slice studies of neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) indicate that excitatory responses evoked by electrical stimulation of the lateral lemniscus consist of two components, an early, rapid response mediated by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors and a later, a slower one mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors.  

The synaptic mechanisms underlying excitation in the rat's central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) were examined by making whole-cell patch clamp recordings in brain slice preparations of the auditory midbrain.  

The model consists of the neural networks of the central nucleus (ICc) and external nucleus (ICx) of the inferior colliculus.  

We use acoustic signals with a structurally rich time-varying spectrum to study linear and nonlinear spectrotemporal interactions in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC).  

These neurons resided in the posteroventral and anteroventral cochlear nucleus, the dorsal cochlear nucleus, the lateral superior olive, the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body, the dorsal and ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, and the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus.  

The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) is particularly important for the processing of interaural time differences (ITDs).  

Type O units in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) of decerebrate cats are excited by best frequency (BF) tones near threshold, but are inhibited by high-level tones at all frequencies.  

These experiments showed that a) in 25% of cases the movement effect depended on the direction of the simulated motion; b) the movement effect was better represented on the wide ipsilateral to the site of EP recording; left- and right-sided movement effects were identically dependent on the rate of motion; c) the phenomenon of the movement effect was associated with the dominance of contralateral afferentation compared with ipsilateral afferentation; d) the movement effect was accompanied by inhibitory manifestations consisting of suppression of monaural afferentation in conditions of binaural stimulation; e) marked movement effects were seen mainly in the ventrocentral part of the central nucleus, located very close to the positions of large multipolar neurons, while mild and moderate movement effects were distributed quite uniformly though the volume of the nucleus, following the distribution of the "basic" neurons; it is suggested that movement effects of different strengths are associated with differences in the ratios of the effectivenesses of ipsi- and contralateral stimulation, which depend on the properties of multipolar and "basic" neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus in relation to their responses to ipsi- and contralateral stimulation..  

In previous studies, we demonstrated that acute lesions the spiral ganglion (SG), the cells of origin of the auditory nerve (AN), change the frequency organization of the inferior colliculus central nucleus (ICC) and primary auditory cortex (AI).  

An in vitro slice preparation was used for intracellular recording from rat central nucleus of inferior colliculus neurons (CNIC).  

Expression of GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)R) alpha(1), alpha(2), beta(2), gamma(1), gamma(2L) and gamma(2S) subunit mRNA was examined in three cell classes in the central nucleus of the rat inferior colliculus (CNIC).  

In the mustached bat, they also occur in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC).  

Neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) of decerebrate cats show three major response patterns when tones of different frequencies and sound-pressure levels (SPLs) are presented to the contralateral ear.  

Excitatory and inhibitory frequency response areas of 130 neurons of the central nucleus of the mouse inferior colliculus (ICC) were mapped by extracellular single-unit recordings and quantitatively evaluated with regard to thresholds, steepness of slopes of excitatory tuning, characteristic frequencies of excitation (CF(E)), inhibition (CFI), and bandwidths of response areas (sharpness of tuning).  

Tone bursts and sinusoidal amplitude modulated sounds were presented to one ear, and recordings were made from the contralateral central nucleus of inferior colliculus (ICC).  

These features suggest that the circuitry linking the DNLL with the opposite central nucleus of the IC is important for the processing of IIDs that change over time, such as the IIDs generated by moving stimuli or by multiple sound sources that emanate from different regions of space..  

At the level of the midbrain (central nucleus of inferior colliculus) cochleotopic maps, based on single unit response characteristic frequency, are changed after such deafferentation.  

The principal subcortical connections of area 7m were with the dorsal portion of the ventrolateral thalamic (VLc) nucleus, lateral posterior thalamic nucleus, lateral pulvinar, caudal mediodorsal thalamic nucleus and medial pulvinar, central lateral, central superior lateral, and central inferior intralaminar thalamic nuclei, dorsolateral caudate nucleus and putamen, middle region of the claustrum, nucleus of the diagonal band, zona incerta, pregeniculate nucleus, anterior and posterior pretectal nuclei, intermediate layer of the superior colliculus, nucleus of Darkschewitsch and dorsomedial parvicellular red nucleus (macaque cases only), dorsal, dorsolateral and lateral basilar pontine nuclei, nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis, locus ceruleus, and superior central nucleus.  

This electrophysiological study tests the hypothesis that one possible neural pathway for corticofugally inhibited neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc) of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, is mediated through excitatory projections from the auditory cortex (AC) to the external nucleus of the IC (ICx), which then sends inhibitory inputs to the ICc.  

A similar step-wise frequency gradient has been shown in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of the cat.  

The ICX receives auditory input from the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) via topographic axonal projections.  

We measured the strength-duration relationship in acutely deafened (100% ANF survival) versus long-term deafened cochleae (approximately 15% ANF survival) by recording from single neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC).  

To elucidate the brain mechanisms for this priming effect of AGS, we compared the threshold current intensities inducing AGS syndromes between primed (n=88) and non-primed (n=84) mice by electrically stimulating the central nucleus and external cortex of the inferior colliculus (CIC and ECIC), and the deep layers of the superior colliculus (DLSC).  

As reported previously, device rearing shifted the representation of ITD in the ICX and tectum but not in the primary source of input to the ICX, the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC).  

Moreover, fear-eliciting stimulations, such as light-CS and ultrasound signals, increase acoustically evoked firing of neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of rats..  

Many units in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CIC) respond to amplitude and frequency modulated tones, features found in communication signals.  

We investigated the modulatory effects of serotonin on the tuning of 114 neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc) of Mexican free-tailed bats and how serotonin-induced changes in tuning influenced responses to complex signals.  

METHODS: Male Wistar rats were fixed in a stereotaxic frame and a chemitrode was implanted into the midbrain, targeted to the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. Since microinjections of naloxonazine in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus caused a significant increase in the aversive thresholds elicited by electrical stimulation of this structure, it is possible that micro1 opioid receptor located in this nucleus may be critically implicated in this neural circuitry..  

In contrast, neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus express high levels of GluR-B flip but only low levels of the other AMPA receptor subunits. In contrast, neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus contain large amounts of GluR-B flip subunits resulting in Ca(2+) impermeable AMPA receptors with slow kinetics..  

The majority of cells were located in the central nucleus and external cortex; relatively few cells were located in the dorsal cortex. In the central nucleus, disk-shaped cells were also labeled.  

Recent studies show that the auditory corticofugal system modulates and improves ongoing signal processing and reorganizes frequency map according to auditory experience in the central nucleus of bat inferior colliculus.  

Expression of mRNAs encoding ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits such as alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), and gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor subunits was assessed by in situ hybridization in the dorsal (DCN) and the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) and in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC).  

The expression of mRNAs encoding N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole (AMPA) and gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor subunits was then studied by in situ hybridization in the dorsal and ventral cochlear nucleus and in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CNIC).  

Recent intracellular studies of the inferior colliculus suggest that intrinsic electrical properties contribute to discharge patterns, but the intrinsic discharge patterns have not been fully characterized in the central nucleus, the main part of the inferior colliculus. Whether different types of neurons are related to different discharge patterns is unclear.We have used intracellular and whole-cell patch clamp-recording techniques in a brain slice preparation to better characterize discharge patterns and cell types in the central nucleus. However, the morphological data demonstrates that the discharge patterns do not correspond simply to disc-shaped (flat) or stellate (less-flat) categories.This is the first extensive analysis of electrophysiological properties of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus in vitro.  

Olivary projections are the predominant afferents to the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. Electron microscopic observations of axonal endings in the central nucleus suggest that the ipsilateral medial superior olive and contralateral lateral superior olive make excitatory synapses. In contrast, the axons from the ipsilateral lateral superior olive to the central nucleus contain glycine and have a morphology consistent with inhibitory synapses.  

On the other hand, an appreciable number of TH-immunoreactive unmyelinated axons and synaptic boutons were found in all subdivisions of the IC, most often in the nucleus externus, followed by the nucleus pericentralis, and a few were seen in the dorsomedial part of the central nucleus.  

Stimulation of the central nucleus and the external cortex of the IC in paralysed guinea pigs, both contra- and ipsilaterally to the test cochlea, resulted in a small increase of the cochlear microphonic amplitude and a small decrease of the compound action potential (CAP) amplitude, the latter equivalent to a 3-6 dB change in acoustic input.  

It was shown that a) in 25% of cases the ME depends on the motion direction; b) the ME is better presented ipsilaterally in respect to the recording point, with equal dependence on motion velocity both on the left and on the right; c) the ME phenomenon is connected with prevalence of contralateral afferentation as compared to the ipsilateral one; d) the ME is connected with inhibitory phenomena such as binaural suppression of monaural afferentation; e) the ME of the best amplitude is most pronounced in the ventrolateral area of the IC central nucleus, its localisation being near to that of the great multipolar neurones, whereas slightly and moderately pronounced MEs are presented rather uniformly over the central nucleus like the "basic" neurones are; MEs of different pronouncement are supposed to depend differently on effectiveness of ipsi- and contralateral stimulation--in accordance with properties of multipolar and "basic" neurons..  

To analyze the intrinsic organization of the SPON and to gain further insight into its relationship with the inferior colliculus, the neuroanatomical tracers biotinylated dextran and horseradish peroxidase were unilaterally injected into different regions of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of adult albino rats. Our results confirm that the projection from the SPON to the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus is nearly exclusively ipsilateral and strictly topographic.  

The central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (IC) is the site of convergence for nearly all ascending monaural and binaural projections.  

In the mustached bat, we have discovered a population of such FM selective cells in an area interposed between the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) and the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus (NLL).  

The processing of information is different in each of the three main subdivisions of the IC--the central nucleus (CNIC), the dorsal cortex (DCIC) and the external cortex (ECIC)--which may be distinguished morphologically as well as by different inputs and outputs.  

In previous electrophysiological experiments conducted in the inferior colliculus (IC), we have demonstrated that the precise cochleotopic organization of the central nucleus (ICC) develops normally in neonatally deafened unstimulated cats and is unaltered despite the lack of normal auditory input during development.  

Linear regression of [ (3)H]muscimol saturation analysis data revealed a significant (P<0.05) reduction in K(d) values in whole IC (-48%), as well as in the central nucleus of IC (CIC, -58%) and combined external and dorsal cortex of IC (E/DCIC, -46%).  

The purpose of this study is to determine whether long-term potentiation (LTP) can be induced in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) by electrical stimulation of the lateral lemniscus.  

AI, AAF, DP and VP project to all three subdivisions of the inferior colliculus, namely the dorsal cortex, external cortex and central nucleus ipsilaterally and to the dorsal and external cortex contralaterally.  

The fibrodendritic laminae of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) constitute a frequency map in stacked sheets that are consistently related to the psychoacoustic critical bandwidth (CB) [ Schreiner and Langner, 1997.  

These axons were generally finer than, but had similar bouton densities as, feed-forward auditory fibers in the ICX, labelled by injections of biocytin into the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC).  

We analyzed the representation of ITD in normal and device-reared owls in two nuclei in the ascending pathway: the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX), the primary source of ascending auditory input to the tectum, and the lateral shell of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICCls), the primary source of input to the ICX.  

At the conclusion of behavioral testing, acute physiological experiments were conducted, and threshold responses were recorded for single neurons and multineuronal clusters in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) and the primary auditory cortex (A1).  

Cells in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICc) receive a large number of convergent inputs that are not only excitatory but inhibitory as well.  

Binaural responses of single neurons in the rat's central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) were recorded before and after local injection of excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists (either 1,2, 3,4-tetrahydro-6-nitro-2,3-dioxo-benzo[ f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide disodium [ NBQX], (+/-)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid [ CPP], 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione [ CNQX], or (+/-)-2amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid [ APV]) into the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL).  

We examined the effect of a neonatal sensorineural hearing loss on the soma area of neurones in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) in adult cats to evaluate the role of auditory experience on neuronal atrophy within the auditory midbrain.  

There was also a sparse projection to the dorsal thalamic nucleus intermedius ventralis anterior, which supplies the somatosensory input to the rostral Wulst, and distinct projections to the intercollicular region surrounding the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus, where they partly overlapped the projections of the dorsal column nuclei.  

Six hours after MCAo, increased immunoreactivity for BVR was noted in neurons in the peri-ischemic areas, intraischemic cortical layers 3 and 5, as well as in neurons in regions distant from the borders of vascular distribution of the MCA, such as those in substantia nigra, in the Purkinje layer of the cerebellum and in the central nucleus of inferior colliculus.  

Characteristic differences were seen between the temporal response properties of neurons in the external nucleus (ICX; approximately 16% of the recordings) and neurons in the central nucleus (ICC; approximately 81% of all recordings) of the IC: 1) in all three experimental groups, neurons in the ICX had significantly lower Fmax and longer response latencies than those in the ICC.  

The organization of frequency sensitivity in the MGB suggests a major rewiring of the output of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus, by which collicular neurons tuned to the bat's FM sonar signals mostly project to the dorsal, not the ventral, division.  

Corticofugal regulation of excitatory and inhibitory frequency tuning curves (FTCs) of neurons in the central nucleus of bat inferior colliculus (ICc) was studied by electrical stimulation of the primary auditory cortex (AC stimulation) under free field stimulation conditions using a two-tone inhibition paradigm.  


-
[ View All ]