Basomedial Nucleus Of Amygdala

The highest density of SOM-positive somata was observed in the layer III of the cortical nuclei, in the anterior (magnocellular) part of the basomedial nucleus and in the caudal (large-celled) part of the lateral nucleus.  

VGLUT1 and -2 expression is mostly segregated to specific divisions of the amygdale, with VGLUT2 being expressed only in the MEA, the anterior cortical nucleus (COAa), and the anterior basomedial nucleus (BMAa), whereas VGLUT1 is expressed in all other divisions of the amygdala.  

VIP-immunoreactive neurons were diffusely distributed in more nuclei than the previous, mostly in the lateral, basolateral, and basomedial nucleus.  

By contrast, aging BDNF(+/-) mice showed increased serotonin innervation of the basomedial nucleus of the amygdala.  

The basomedial nucleus (65 +/- 4 vs.  

The basomedial nucleus contained numerous positive cells but most of them were only lightly labeled.  

The posterior BST, the basomedial nucleus (BMA), and the cortical nucleus of the amygdala (COA) were found to be the major ENK afferents of the MEA, whereas the anterolateral BST, the COA, the MEA, and the BMA provided the main ENKergic innervation of the CEA.  

In contrast, the maternal separation 15 min group displayed the highest serotonergic transporter and serotonergic 1A densities in the basomedial nucleus of amygdala, basolateral anterior nucleus of amygdala, basolateral ventral nucleus of amygdala and basomedial nucleus of amygdala amygdaloid nuclei.  

The medial amygdaloid nucleus contained the greatest amount of motilin receptors, which was also abound in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala but less abundant in the basomedial nucleus of the amygdala, central amygdaloid nucleus and lateral amygdaloid nucleus.  

The basomedial nucleus (BM) exhibited the highest nNOS immunoreactivity in the basolateral complex, observable from early embryonic stages, whereas the lateral nucleus displayed the lowest level of immunoreactivity.  

At E16.5, CB+ cells became more abundant in the lateral and basolateral nuclei than in the basomedial nucleus, showing a pattern very similar to that of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons.  

the postpiriform-transition area, the anterior part of cortical nucleus, anterior part of basomedial nucleus, posterior part of basolateral nucleus, and medial part of central nucleus) and affiliated sites in the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (i.e.  

Estrogen receptor alpha mRNA levels were reduced in the basomedial nucleus in major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder.  

A massive overlap of both projection systems was observed especially in the anterior basomedial nucleus of the amygdala. Altogether the findings demonstrate that the thalamic connection with the basomedial nucleus of the amygdala may represent an anatomical substrate for modulating amygdala output to the hippocampal formation..  

On about the 7th postnatal day it is possible to divide the basomedial nucleus (BM) into dorsal (Bmd) and ventral (BMv) divisions.  

Here, we took advantage of the fact that glutamatergic neurons of the lateral nucleus send a primarily unidirectional projection to the basomedial nucleus. Consequently, it was possible to infer the targets of their intranuclear axons (projection cells vs inhibitory interneurons) by backfiring some projection neurons from the basomedial nucleus and analyzing evoked responses in other LA projection cells.  

In addition, the results provided direct evidence that the connections of anterior temporal visual and auditory association cortices occupy overlapping territories with the orbitofrontal cortices particularly in the posterior half of the amygdala, and specifically within the intermediate sector of the basolateral nucleus and in the magnocellular part of the basomedial nucleus (also known as accessory basal), suggesting a closely linked triadic network.  

These included lower (p < 0.05) sst(2) levels in the gyrus dentate of the hippocampus and basomedial nucleus of the amygdala; significantly higher (p < 0.01) levels were observed only for the high-affinity states of the periventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.  

Increase in the slow-wave activity in the delta 1 range (1-2 Hz) in caudate putamen, basomedial nucleus of amygdala, and sensorimotor cortex was observed in the animals immunized with bovine serum albumin mixed with Freund's adjuvant complete 1 week after the antigen injection and later on during the whole observation period.  

In addition, the PIN projects heavily to the anterior basomedial nucleus and medial division of the central nucleus, whereas this projection is virtually absent from the other thalamic nuclei.  

No labeled cells were found within the basomedial nucleus..  

Commissural zinc-containing projections were found to originate from the posterolateral and posteromedial cortical nuclei and from the posterior part of the basomedial nucleus.  

Sparse alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-immunoreactive fibers were found in the basomedial nucleus of the amygdala, whereas a low density of fibers containing alpha-neo-endorphin was observed in the anterior amygdaloid area. A moderate density was observed in the basomedial nucleus and in the medial and cortical nuclei.  

The organization of axonal projections from the basomedial nucleus of the amygdala (BMA) was examined with the Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHAL) method in adult male rats. Within the amygdala, the anterior basomedial nucleus (BMAa) heavily innervates the central, medial, and anterior cortical nuclei. In contrast, the posterior basomedial nucleus (BMAp) sends a dense projection to the lateral nucleus, and to restricted parts of the central and medial nuclei.  

Small Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin injections in both nuclei gave rise to prominent intranuclear projections but only the basomedial nucleus was found to project to the lateral and anterior cortical nuclei.  

Finally, in the basomedial nucleus, very few labeled cell bodies were present in the rostral two-thirds, whilst a considerable number was encountered in the caudal one-third.  

Neuronal death was a continuous process, although there were differences according the centres, for instance, the higher loss was found in the first half of life in the cortex entorhinalis and hippocampus (rat), and the contrary happened in the dorsolateral and basomedial nucleus of amygdala.  

The core projects mainly to itself and to the basomedial nucleus, whereas the shell contributes a massive projection to the basolateral nucleus.  

Relatively sparse terminal fields associated with ascending fibers were also observed in the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus; in the nucleus reuniens, parataenial nucleus, paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, and mediodorsal nucleus; in the central nucleus of the amygdala, anterodorsal part of the medial nucleus of the amygdala, posterior part of the basomedial nucleus of the amygdala; and in the ventral subiculum and adjacent parts of hippocampal field CA1, and the infralimbic and prelimbic areas of the medial prefrontal cortex.  

The major amygdalar terminal field is centered in the posterior basomedial nucleus, while other structures that appear to be innervated include the piriformamygdaloid area, the posterior basolateral, posterior cortical, posterior, central, medial, and intercalated nuclei, and the nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract.  

The latter received a high proportion of their amygdaloid projections from the basomedial nucleus.  

In the adult rat brain, the distribution of IGF-1 sites is broader, with a high density of sites observed in superficial and deep cortical layers, olfactory bulb, endopiriform nucleus, basomedial nucleus of the amygdala, thalamic nuclei and hippocampus.  

Within the amygdala, retrogradely labeled neurons occupied the anterior basomedial nucleus, the posterior basolateral nucleus, and a narrow strip of the lateral nucleus immediately adjoining the basolateral nucleus.  

The main nuclei with contralateral insular and temporal projections are the basomedial nucleus, ventral endopiriform nucleus, and nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract.  

Additional cells were seen in the central nucleus, basomedial nucleus and anterior amygdaloid area.  

As regards the projections from the amygdaloid complex, it was observed that the entorhinal cortex receives its heaviest input from the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, whereas the perirhinal cortex receives a strong projection from the lateral nucleus and a weaker projection from the basomedial nucleus of the amygdala.  

The posterior subdivision of the basolateral nucleus (BLp), but not the basomedial nucleus (BM), projects to the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus.  

A cell in the region of the basomedial nucleus showed characteristics of an inhibitory interneuron.  

The least amount of growth occurred in the basomedial nucleus in which only total dendritic length increased.  

The rest of the periamygdaloid cortex medial to the amygdaloid fissure and including the cortical nucleus of the amygdala projects primarily to the basomedial nucleus.  

In the 6 areas with more than 25 tested units, the basomedial nucleus had the highest percentage of responsive units (39%), followed by the accessory basolateral (33%), central (22%y, basolateral (21%), and lateral (5%) nuclei, and the anterior amygdala area (4%). The basomedial nucleus appears to receive the most potent hippocampal influence. Response characteristics are consistent with a hypothesized relay of nonfornix hippocampal influences on basal forebrain and hypothalamus via the basomedial nucleus.  

For animals stimulated 2 min after training, the optimal stimulation region was one which extended rostrally from the ventrolateral portion of the basomedial nucleus to the dorsomedial region of the amygdala near the stria terminalis and nucleus centralis.  

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