Anteroventral Nucleus Of Thalamus

Heavy P2X(5) receptor immunostaining was observed in the mitral cells of the olfactory bulb; cerebral cortex; globus pallidum, anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus, amygdalohippocampal area of subcortical telencephalon; anterior nuclei, anteroventral nucleus, ventrolateral nucleus of thalamus; supraoptic nucleus, ventromedial nucleus, arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus; substantia nigra of midbrain; pontine nuclei, mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus, motor trigeminal nucleus, ambiguous nucleus, inferior olive, hypoglossal nucleus, dorsal motor vagus nucleus, area postrema of hindbrain; Purkinje cells of cerebellum; and spinal cord.  

The ventromedial part of the anteroventral nucleus receives ipsilateral projections from the anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral projections from the secondary motor cortex, in a topographic manner similar to the projections to the AM.  

Using the chronic psychosocial stress paradigm in male tree shrews, we analyzed alpha-2B adrenoceptor expression in the paraventricular and the anteroventral nucleus of the thalamus after a six-week period of daily social stress and after a 10-day post-stress recovery period.  

MR images showed that lesions involved the genu of the internal capsule, the anteroventral nucleus, the lateroventral nucleus, intralaminar nuclei, the mamillothalamic tract and the region around the ventral thalamus.  

anteroventral nucleus had decreased ACh content after PPTg lesion, but a time dependent increase was found in mediodorsal nucleus; ACh concentration was unchanged in thalamic reticular nucleus or medial geniculate.  

Cholinergic neurons of the mesopontine complex have extensive ascending projections to the forebrain: the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus extensively innervates the anterior thalamus, the anteroventral nucleus in particular, whereas the pedunculopontine nucleus has widespread projections to both the thalamus and extrapyramidal structures.  

Exceptions were the anteroventral nucleus of the hypothalamus and the striatum, which showed higher levels of trkC messenger RNA expression, and the germinal zones which were devoid of trkC messenger RNA.  

Area Fr1 receives thalamic input from nuclei VL, anteroventral nucleus (AV), CL and Po, but none from mediodorsal nucleus (MD) or LP, and its input from VM is reduced.  

D3 binding sites and D3 mRNA positive neurons were most abundant in the limbic striatum and efferent structures, such as the nucleus accumbens, ventral striatum, substantia nigra, internal segment of the globus pallidus, anteroventral nucleus of the thalamus, and rostral pars reticulata of the substantia nigra.  

Areas 29a and 29b project mainly ipsilaterally to the rostral two-thirds of the anteroventral nucleus, with area 29a projecting more rostrodorsally than area 29b. Area 29c projects bilaterally to the ventromedial part of the anteroventral nucleus. The projections from area 29c are organized in a topographic pattern such that the rostral area 29c projects to the caudoventral part of the anteroventral nucleus, whereas the caudal area 29c projects to the more rostrodorsal parts. Caudal area 29d projects mainly ipsilaterally to the rostrodorsal part of the anteromedial nucleus, and the rostral and dorsal parts of the anteroventral nucleus, whereas rostral area 29d projects bilaterally to the caudodorsal part of the anteromedial nucleus and the caudolateral part of the anteroventral nucleus.  

In the dorsal thalamus, highest mRNA levels were found in the anteroventral nucleus and in the parafascicular nucleus.  

Anterogradely labeled axonal arborizations arising from the posterior cingulate cortex were concentrated bilaterally in the ventral part of the anteroventral nucleus. In contrast, the axonal arborizations arising from the presubiculum were concentrated ipsilaterally in the dorsal part of the anteroventral nucleus and comprised two identifiable populations of terminals.  

Autoradiographic comparison of coronal slices through the anteroventral nucleus of the thalamus, through the hippocampus and through the pons at 2 h post injection shows that (R,S)-[ 125I]IQNB prepared by the triazene and tributylstannyl methods have indistinguishable patterns of binding..  

One STT neuron (3%) was activated antidromically from the anteroventral nucleus of the thalamus.  

Immediately ventral to this group of neurons, but still within the dorsal portion of the reticular nucleus, a second group of neurons, extending from the dorsolateral to the dorsomedial edge of the nucleus, projected to the ventral parts of the posterior and medial subdivisions of the anteroventral nucleus. Following injection of tracer into the dorsal part of the rostral anteroventral nucleus, retrograde labelled GABA-containing cell bodies were also found in the ipsilateral anterodorsal nucleus..  

Intense PV labelling was found in all the GABAergic neurons of the reticular nucleus and in scattered GABAergic neurons in the anteroventral nucleus, whereas GABAergic interneurons in the ventrobasal and lateral geniculate nuclei were not PV labelled.  

A lower intensity signal was found in cells of the parvocellular paraventricular and anteroventral nucleus of the thalamus, circumventricular organs including the pineal, and the subfornical organ.  

Discriminant analysis selected three other regions that significantly discriminated the tone-excitor and -inhibitor groups: perirhinal cortex (PRh), nucleus accumbens (ACB), and the anteroventral nucleus of the thalamus (AVN).  

FMH pretreatment produced a significant protection against PTD-induced neuronal loss within the midline-intralaminar and anteromedial thalamic nuclei, but had no effect on damage to ventrolateral nuclei, anteroventral nucleus, or the mammillary bodies.  

The anteroventral nucleus (AV) projects to the subicular complex with a complex topographic organization.  

The anteroventral nucleus projects to layers I and IV of the retrosplenial granular area, whereas the anterodorsal nucleus projects to layers I, III and IV of the same area.  

In the thalamus, moderately labeled neurons were distributed in the anterodorsal, anteromedial, ventromedial, intralaminar and midline nuclei; the ventrolateral part of the anteroventral nucleus and the rostral pole of the ventrolateral nucleus also contained moderately labeled neurons.  

[ 125I]Iodoglyburide presented a more uniform binding with the highest levels in the globus pallidus, islands of Calleja, anteroventral nucleus of the thalamus and zonas reticulata of the substantia nigra.  

The ventrolateral region of the pars lateralis projects to the ventral part of the anteroventral nucleus (AV) in such a manner that rostral cells project rostrally and caudal cells project caudally.  

In the parvocellular division of the anteroventral nucleus (AVp), OXO-M/PZ binding progressively increased throughout training, reached a peak at the criterion stage of performance, and returned to control values during extinction sessions. In the magnocellular division of the anteroventral nucleus (AVm), OXO-M/PZ binding was elevated only during criterion performance of the task, and it was unaltered in any other limbic thalamic nuclei.  

Significant (P less than 0.05) increases were found in 3 structures (lateral geniculate body, superior colliculus, anteroventral nucleus of the thalamus).  

Regional differences in the expression of the receptor were consistently observed: the immunostaining was much lighter in the thalamic reticular nucleus than in the dorsal thalamic nuclei and, among the latter, the anteroventral nucleus and the ventral nuclear complex displayed the most intense immunopositivity.  

The thalamic nuclei examined in this study are the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus, ventroposteromedial nucleus, ventroposterolateral nucleus, and anteroventral nucleus. In the anteroventral nucleus, cholinergic terminals form both symmetric and asymmetric synaptic contacts onto dendrites and somata. Cholinergic terminals in the anteroventral nucleus are larger than those in other nuclei.  

Tract tracing experiments demonstrate that the anteroventral nucleus of the thalamus appears to project selectively to the region containing the dendritic bundles, whereas intracortical projections appear to terminate in layers Ib and Ic in the 30-200 microns spaces between the bundles.  

The anteroventral nucleus retains its dorsal position for its entire rostrocaudal extent.  

All functional and structural features of AD listed above were absent in adjacent anteroventral nucleus.  

The anterodorsal nucleus and the anteroventral nucleus project to posterior area 24 and all of area 29.  

The bulk of the neurons of the anteroventral nucleus are generated over a 3-day period between days E15-E17 and settle with an oblique lateral-to-medial and ventral-to-dorsal neurogenetic gradient. The bulk of the neurons of the anteromedial nucleus are generated over a 2-day period between days E16-E17 and show the same settling pattern as the anteroventral nucleus. On day E17 the putative migratory stream of the anteromedial nucleus appears to leave the same neuroepithelial region that on the previous days was the source of the anteroventral nucleus.  

Application of NE to neurons of the lateral and medial geniculate nuclei, nucleus reticularis, anteroventral nucleus, and the parataenial (PT) nucleus resulted in a slow depolarization associated with a 2- to 15-nS decrease in input conductance and an increase in the slow membrane time constant from an average of 27.7 to 37.7 ms.  

Quantitative measurement of the 3H-nicotine autoradiograms showed highest labelling in the anteroventral nucleus of thalamus (17.34 +/- 0.76 pmol/g tissue).  

For example, high densities of labelling are observed for these different markers in the interpeduncular nucleus, anteroventral nucleus of the thalamus, striatum, basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, and an exquisite laminar distribution in the hippocampus.  

The caudal part of the cingulate gyrus receives fibers from the medial part of the anteromedial nucleus (AM) and the rostromedial part of the anteroventral nucleus (AV).  

Cingulate cortex, anteromedial, anteroventral nucleus of the thalamus, habenula and nucleus accumbens showed a decreased LCGU.  

NPY-like containing perikarya were localized in the infundibulum, mainly in the ventral and dorsal nuclei of the infundibulum, in the preoptic nucleus, in the posterocentral nucleus of the thalamus, in the anteroventral nucleus of the mesencephalic tegmentum, in the part posterior to the torus semicircularis, and in the mesencephalic cerebellar nucleus.  

In addition, dense plexuses were also seen in the globus pallidus, anteroventral nucleus of the thalamus, substantia nigra and hippocampus.  

HRP injections were placed in the dorsal half of the anterior third of the thalamus on one side which included the anteroventral nucleus as well as portions of the rostral intralaminar and reticular nuclei.  

The neurons of anteroventral nucleus possessed high mean frequency of discharges and highly differentiated dynamic patterns of activity with "inactivation bursts", modulation in delta- or theta-frequencies and episodic rhythmic discharges 12-14 Hz correlated with EEG-spindles in the posterior cingulate cortex.  

The pars basalis was found to have numerous projections to the magnocellular part of the anteroventral nucleus. The magnocellular part of the anteroventral nucleus, however, receives only ipsilateral projections from all of the limbic cortex.  

P, and CAI; increased LCGU in the lesioned vestibular nuclei; but decreased LCGU in mammillary nuclei, anteroventral nucleus of thalamus, and medial raphe.  

Neurons in deep laminae of the rabbit cingulate cortex develop discriminative activity at an early stage of behavioral discrimination learning, whereas neurons in the anteroventral nucleus of thalamus and neurons in the superficial cortical laminae develop such activity in a late stage of behavioral learning. It is hypothesized that early-forming discriminative neuronal activity, relayed to anteroventral neurons via the corticothalamic pathway, contributes to the construction of changes underlying the late-forming neuronal discrimination in the anteroventral nucleus. The resultant late discriminative activity in the anteroventral nucleus is then relayed via the thalamocortical pathway back to the superficial cortical laminae, promoting disengagement of cortex from further task-processing..  

The anterodorsal nucleus has regressed into a small, flattened cap-line structure covering the dorsal surface of the anteroventral nucleus.  

The pars latralis (Ml) and pars posterior (Mp) of the medial mammillary nucleus send fibers predominantly to the ipsilateral anteroventral nucleus and sparsely to the contralateral side.  

Injections of HRP into the posterior area of the limbic cortex resulted in its uptake by various anterior thalamic nuclei, especially the anteroventral nucleus.  

The lower bank and fundus of the splenial sulcus receive fibers from the anteroventral nucleus, particularly its parvocellular part.  

The anteroventral nucleus sends fibers to the cingular area and parts of the retrosplenial, postsubicular and presubicular areas. There appears to be an anteroposterior organization in the cortical projections of the anteroventral nucleus. Fibers from the anteroventral nucleus are distributed most profusely in layers IV and III and in the superficial portion of layer I of the posterior limbic cortex.  

Multiple unit activity was recorded from the anterior cingulate cortical area (AC), anteroventral nucleus of the thalamus (AV), and medial geniculate nucleus (MGN) in rabbits during presentations of pure tone stimuli.  

Multiple-unit activity was recorded from the rabbit anterior cingulate cortical area (AC) and from the anteroventral nucleus of the thalamus (AV) during differential avoidance conditioning and reversal.  

In cats with lesions of the posterior cingulate and presubicular cortex the Fink-Heimer method showed the fine-grain silver deposit in the lateralis dorsalis (LD) and the anteroventral nucleus (AV). The 'dust' was densest in the dorsomedial zones of the anteroventral nucleus.  

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