Globus Pallidus

Although overall brain volumes were the same between genotypes, decreases in volumes were found in the cortex and striatum of R6/2 mice, with significant volume increases in the lateral ventricles and Globus Pallidus. There was a significant increase in signal intensity in the Globus Pallidus, amygdala, cortex and striatum in R6/2 mice that may reflect neuronal atrophy.  

DMI challenge in chronic DMI-treated neuropathic rats produced significantly greater activation of the deep mesencephalic nucleus, primary somatosensory cortex, insular cortex, medial Globus Pallidus, inferior colliculus, perirhinal cortex and cerebellum compared to sham-operated rats and saline controls.  

the parahippocampal gyrus/hippocampus and basal ganglia (Globus Pallidus, caudate nucleus, and substantia nigra).  

The ART system detected significant changes in rigidity measures following administration of apomorphine or deep brain stimulation of the Globus Pallidus internus.  

The phase values were measured on the corrected phase images in the Globus Pallidus, putamen, caudate, substantia nigra, red nucleus, thalamus and frontal white matter.  

Most neurons in the external and internal segments of the Globus Pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (GPe, GPi and SNr) are characterized by a high-frequency discharge (HFD) rate (50-80 Hz) which, in most GPe neurons, is also interrupted by pauses.  

We analyzed recordings from three BG locations: the external part of the Globus Pallidus (GPe), the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), and dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) during performance of a probabilistic visuo-motor task.  

Inhibitory responses of rat nigral dopaminergic neurons by stimulation of afferents from striatum, Globus Pallidus, or pars reticulata have been shown to be mediated predominantly or exclusively by GABA(A) receptors. Striatal-evoked inhibition exhibited a slower onset and a weaker initial component compared with inhibition from Globus Pallidus or substantia nigra pars reticulata.  

Compared to persistent ecstasy-naives, novel low-dose ecstasy users (mean 6.0, median 2.0 tablets) showed decreased rrCBV in the Globus Pallidus and putamen; decreased FA in thalamus and frontoparietal white matter; increased FA in Globus Pallidus; and increased apparent diffusion coefficient in the thalamus.  

The Globus Pallidus and subthalamic nucleus was not identified, and the putamen and thalamus were dysplasic.  

The non-linear dynamic specificity of the firing pattern discharged from neurons of the internal Globus Pallidus (GPi) was investigated by recording their spontaneous firing using a microelectrode during posteroventral pallidotomy in eight patients with Parkinson's disease.  

Met-enkephalin immunoreactive neurons were labeled in the caudate-putamen, intermediated part of lateral septum, lateral Globus Pallidus, intermediated part of lateral septum, hypothalamus, and amygdala of WT mice.  

METHODS: Serial (1)H-MRS of both thalami was performed during the course of DBS of bilateral Globus Pallidus internus in a patient with primary generalized dystonia.  

The reciprocal connections between the Globus Pallidus (GP) and other basal ganglia (BG) nuclei indicate that the GP plays a significant role in controlling the neuronal activity of the entire BG; in turn, the activity of GP neurons is controlled by several major inputs that involve the striatum.  

the Globus Pallidus (GP) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) following 6-OHDA lesion of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) or the striatum.  

However, a slight increase in GMV was also found in the right Globus Pallidus externus in sPARKIN-MC and in the right putamen in iPD.  

Using c-Fos expression as a high-resolution marker of neuronal activation, congenic mice demonstrated significantly less neuronal activity associated with ethanol withdrawal than background strain mice in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), subthalamic nucleus (STN), rostromedial lateral Globus Pallidus, and ventral pallidum.  

Although different at baseline, no progressive change was observed in the Globus Pallidus, which does not receive direct projections from the cortex.  

5-HT1B receptor density and G-protein coupling were higher in MDMA-treated S100B mutant mice than in saline-treated mutant mice and MDMA-treated wild-type mice in the medial Globus Pallidus.  

The Globus Pallidus behaves as a keyboard on which various behavioral repertoires can be coded, from the simplest movement of a single joint to the most complex motor sequence involving the entire body and expressing an emotional content in a cognitive context.  

Neurons in the caudate, Globus Pallidus, substantia nigra, hypothalamus, neocortex layers II and III, and cerebellar Purkinje cells were all immunopositive for DARPP32 in the normal control brains, and the immunostaining patterns were very similar to those observed in patients with MSA.  

Here we describe a 22-year-old woman treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the left internal Globus Pallidus for hemidystonia.  

Medical treatment was ineffective for her stereotypy and choreoathetotic/ballistic movements, but bilateral stimulation of the Globus Pallidus immediately alleviated these symptoms.  

High Globus Pallidus iron is an inconsistent feature of INAD; however, it is a diagnostic criterion of NBIA, which describes a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders that share this hallmark feature.  

Methamphetamine (3 mg/kg, i.p.) induced Fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI) dominantly in the striatum and the Globus Pallidus (GP) on the intact side as well as in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) on the lesioned side in the 6-OHDA rats.  

Caffeine given systemically (15 mg/kg) or into the dorsal striatum or external Globus Pallidus (GP(E); 20-40 mug) increased contralateral forepaw stepping by 14%, 27%, and 26%, respectively, and enhanced the effect of 8 mg/kg L-DOPA on stepping.  

CM/Pf lesion prevented the changes produced by the dopamine denervation in the components of the indirect pathway connecting the striatum to the output structures (striatopallidal neurons, Globus Pallidus, subthalamic nucleus), and among the output structures, in the entopeduncular nucleus.  

The vast majority of patients have been implanted with bilateral electrodes, and the targets were the subthalamic nucleus, the thalamus and the internal segment of Globus Pallidus.  

BACKGROUND: The term basal ganglia usually includes the striatum, Globus Pallidus, substantia nigra and the subthalamic nucleus.  

The results showed that most of the forebrain structures known to receive neuronal projections from the VTA, including prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, Globus Pallidus and caudate putaman, were enhanced at 24 h after injection of MnCl(2) into the ipsilateral VTA, and anesthesia seemed have little effects on the amount of Mn(2+)being transported from the VTA to these structures..  

In contrast, two key structures of the basal ganglia, the Globus Pallidus internus and the subthalamic nucleus, were not found to be engaged in these processes.  

We followed 6 patients with medically refractory tardive dystonia treated by bilateral Globus Pallidus internus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) for 21 +/- 18 months.  

Additionally, our results suggest that neurons representing the leg lie within the most ventral aspect of the Globus Pallidus interna.  

High-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or internal segment of the Globus Pallidus is a clinically successful treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Action potentials were recorded from neurons of the internal and external Globus Pallidus and the motor thalamus (ventralis anterior, ventralis lateralis pars oralis and ventralis posterior lateralis pars oralis) during HFS that reduced motor symptoms and during clinically ineffective low frequency stimulation (LFS).  

Discussion: MRI abnormalities attributable to vigabatrin, characterized by new-onset and reversible T(2)-weighted hyperintensities and restricted diffusion in thalami, Globus Pallidus, dentate nuclei, brainstem, or corpus callosum were identified in 8 of 23 patients.  

The motor circuit of the BG has two entry points, the striatum and the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and an output, the Globus Pallidus pars interna (GPi), which connects to the cortex via the motor thalamus. (2) Indirect trisynaptic projections to the GPi via the Globus Pallidus pars externa (GPe).  

Continuous stimulation of the Globus Pallidus (GP) has been shown to be an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD).  

In fact, serotonergic terminals have been reported to make synaptic contacts with both substantia nigra dopamine-containing neurons and their terminal areas such as the striatum, the Globus Pallidus and the subthalamus.  

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the Globus Pallidus pars interna (GPi) is an effective therapy option for controlling the motor symptoms of medication-refractory Parkinson's disease and dystonia. We focused our analysis on three general neural elements that surround GPi-DBS electrodes: GPi somatodendritic segments, GPi efferent axons, and Globus Pallidus pars externa (GPe) fibers of passage.  

Gray matter was relatively increased in the right anterior hippocampus and relatively decreased in the right dorsal basal ganglia (Globus Pallidus/putamen) in the postmenstrual phase.  

RATIONALE: Somatostatin and its receptors have been localized in brain nuclei implicated in motor control, such as the striatum, nucleus accumbens, ventral pallidum, and Globus Pallidus (GP).  

DARP32+ neurons projecting to the Globus Pallidus were strongly GFP+ with both vectors, whereas those projecting to the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) were efficiently labeled by the CMV but poorly by the tetON vector.  

Preoperative videos and neurological assessments were obtained and the DBS implant was inserted into the Globus Pallidus internus.  

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the neuronal activities in the Globus Pallidus internus (GPi) related to parkinsonian rigidity and bradykenisa METHODS: Twenty-six patients (M: 13 and F: 13) with parkinsonian syndromes of rigidity and bradykinesia, aged (58 +/- 11) with the duration of disease of (5.5 +/- 3.4) years, underwent pallidotomy.  

We therefore evaluated the effect of anterior STN stimulation on the repetitive behaviors induced in two monkeys after bicuculline-induced dysfunction of the limbic external Globus Pallidus.  

Clearance of the Mn tissue concentration was also demonstrated in the Globus Pallidus, plus other tissues from the brain, liver, spleen, and blood.  

In the second simulation, focal increases in the Globus Pallidus and thalamus motor nuclei were simulated in addition to cortical decreases, thus emulating the putative metabolic pattern in PD.  

After chronic levodopa treatment, cAMP and cGMP were differentially regulated in eukinetic animals: the cAMP level increased in the cortex and striatum but decreased in the Globus Pallidus of both hemispheres, whereas the cGMP decreased below baseline levels in the contralateral cortico-striatal-pallidal regions.  

Retrograde axonal transport of horseradish peroxidase was used to show that the projections of the Globus Pallidus, entopeduncular nucleus, substantia nigra, and pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus in dogs are directed to all segments of the zone incerta.  

Instead, I56ii-positive cells mark a subpopulation(s) of post-mitotic projection neurons that tangentially migrate from the LGE to the deep mantle of the MGE and reside between the subventricular zone and the Globus Pallidus during midgestation.  

BACKGROUND: Hyperintense signals in the basal ganglia, namely the Globus Pallidus, have been reported on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 70-100% of patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Hyperintense Globus Pallidus was seen in four (57%) and eight (80%) patients with NCPF and cirrhosis, respectively. CONCLUSION: Hyperintense Globus Pallidus on MRI is common in patients liver cirrhosis and also occurs in patients with NCPF. Patients with EHPVO do not have hyperintense Globus Pallidus on T1-weighted MRI images..  

Using the Nearest Centroid analysis, the subset of 113 significantly perturbed components predicted Globus Pallidus manganese concentrations with 72.9% accuracy for all subchronically exposed monkeys.  

RESULTS: Diffusion tensor imaging revealed significant differences of diffusion parameters in several areas of the brain, including the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, cingulum, corticospinal tracts, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior and superior longitudinal fasciculi, Globus Pallidus, putamen, and thalamus.  

The state ofperoxidation processes in the basal nuclei (the nucleus caudatus, Globus Pallidus, nucleus accumbens, amigdaloid complex) of the rat's brain under conditions of an altered photoperiod has been studied.  

Moderate levels were observed in some amygdaloid nuclei, CA2 area and dentate gyrus of hippocampus, endopiriform nuclei, Globus Pallidus, striatum, molecular layer of cerebellum, and locus coeruleus, whereas no expression was detected in hypothalamic nuclei, CA1 and CA3 areas of hippocampus, zona incerta.  

We present 2 patients with hemidystonia secondary to thalamic hemorrhage whom we successfully treated with unilateral Globus Pallidus internus (GPi) stimulation.  

Subsequently, volumes of interest (VOIs) were placed around active electrode contacts, in the STN and in the Globus Pallidus. CONCLUSIONS: The data demonstrate that deep brain stimulation (DBS) induced metabolic activation of the subthalamic region and the directly connected Globus Pallidus which is in line with local and remote excitation of neurons by high frequency stimulation.  

Globus Pallidus (GP) neurons recorded in brain slices show significant variability in intrinsic electrophysiological properties.  

Lesions following microelectrode guided Globus Pallidus internus (GPi) pallidotomy for Parkinson's disease are presented to demonstrate this new method in regard to clinical outcome.  

These operations can include the creation of lesions in the thalamus (thalamotomy) or the Globus Pallidus (pallidotomy), or the insertion of deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes in the subcortical nuclei.  

A computed tomographic scan showed low-density areas in the left Globus Pallidus and corona radiata.  

High-frequency stimulation has recently been applied to patients with TS in open studies using the centromedian-parafascicular complex (CM-Pf) of the thalamus, the internal Globus Pallidus (GPi), or the anterior limb of the internal capsule as the principal target.  

Based on these initial findings, we proposed that: (a) D2-like receptors in the dorsal striatum are responsible for attenuating kappa-opioid-induced locomotor activity, and (b) the effects of D2-like receptor stimulation are mediated by the indirect pathway, which extends from the dorsal striatum to the SNPR via the Globus Pallidus (GP) and subthalamic nucleus (STN).  

The other two had elevated blood manganese (2100 mug/L and 3176 mug/L) and MRIs showing bilateral symmetric hyper-intensities on T1-weighted-images in the dentate nucleus, subcortical white substance of cerebellar hemisphere, Globus Pallidus, and putamen.  

RATIONALE: Adenosine and dopamine interact within the striatum to control striatopallidal output and Globus Pallidus GABA release.  

Proton spectra recorded from single voxels containing putamen and Globus Pallidus showed a significantly higher intensity of myoinositol and choline peaks in patients when compared with controls.  

Meta-analysis of these studies identified a significant regional gray matter reduction in ADHD in the right putamen/Globus Pallidus region. CONCLUSION: In ADHD there is gray matter reduction in the right putamen/Globus Pallidus region.  

Bilateral chronic stimulation of the internal Globus Pallidus was performed to control choreic movements in a 60-year-old man with a 10-year history of Huntington disease.  

DS scores correlated positively with activations in brain regions previously associated with disgust (anterior insula, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex-temporal pole, putamen-Globus Pallidus, dorsal anterior cingulate, and visual cortex) and negatively with brain regions involved in the regulation of emotions (dorsolateral and rostral prefrontal cortices).  

The postmortem neuropathologic examination revealed, in addition to aging-associated changes in the brain, numerous corpora amylacea in some brain areas, especially the substantia nigra, and large numbers of axonal spheroids associated with iron accumulation in the internal Globus Pallidus.  

The distribution of neprilysin was almost identical in dogs and cats, being high in the striatum, Globus Pallidus, and substantia nigra, but very low in the cerebral cortex.  

The basal forebrain contains several interdigitating anatomical structures, including the diagonal band of Broca, the basal nucleus of Meynert, the ventral striatum, and also cell groups underneath the Globus Pallidus that bridge the centromedial amygdala to the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.  

Neuropathologically, the patient showed marked atrophy and neuronal loss, particularly small and medium-sized neurons, with astrocytic gliosis in the caudate nucleus, putamen and Globus Pallidus. This ChAc patient showed faint immunoreactivity in the caudate nucleus and Globus Pallidus with antibodies against the striatal neurotransmitters, methionine-enkephalin, leucine-enkephalin and substance P.  

We examined the effect of a new glutamatergic analog, (+)-(S)-4-(2,2-diphenyl-1,3,2-oxazabolidin-5-oxo)propionic acid, (+)-(S)-Trujillon, on the spontaneous Globus Pallidus neuronal activity of the anesthetized rat.  

Moreover, (18)FDG PET revealed significant metabolic increases in the ipsilateral ventrolateral thalamic areas and metabolic decrease at the contralateral Globus Pallidus interna (GPi).  

RESULTS: Nineteen of the 24 patients had abnormal T(1)-weighted image hyperintensity in the Globus Pallidus, but these lesions appeared as normal T(2)-weighted image intensity in the same region.  

Recently there has been increasing interest in the non-motor functions of the Globus Pallidus, and especially its role in cognitive processing. We experienced two patients with acute cognitive and behavior changes after Globus Pallidus infarctions. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed focal acute cerebral infarction in the left Globus Pallidus. These cases suggest that strategic infarction dementia can result from a single Globus Pallidus lesion..  

BSP patients had increased activation in the thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen and lateral Globus Pallidus, whilst CD patients showed increased activation in the caudate nucleus, putamen and thalamus.  

In widespread segmental or generalized dystonia efficient treatment options were lacking until the recent introduction of deep brain stimulation of the internal Globus Pallidus (pallidal DBS).  

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the internal Globus Pallidus (GPi) is an established surgical technique for the treatment of movement disorders.  

We investigated by a computational model of the basal ganglia the different network effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Parkinson's disease (PD) in different target sites in the subthalamic nucleus (STN), the Globus Pallidus pars interna (GPi), and the Globus Pallidus pars externa (GPe).  

Wfs1-positive nerve fibers were found in the medial forebrain bundle, reticular part of the substantia nigra, Globus Pallidus, posterior caudate putamen, lateral lemniscus, alveus, fimbria, dorsal hippocampal commissure, subiculum, and to a lesser extent in the central sublenticular extended amygdala, compact part of substantia nigra, and ventral tegmental area.  

The Globus Pallidus (GP), the rodent homologue of the primate GPe, is the main central nucleus of the basal ganglia, affecting the striatum, the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and BG output structures.  

Voxels were located in the Globus Pallidus (right, left).  

The ICH model was established by injecting collagenase type VII 0.5 U stereotaxically into right Globus Pallidus.  

Thereafter, the patient had two clinical relapses: one was due to a lesion in the dorsal part of the medulla oblongata associated with a disturbance of deep sensation in both hands, and the other was due to a lesion involving the right internal capsule, the Globus Pallidus, and the caudate nucleus associated with left facial nerve palsy.  

Here we report two patients with bilateral fetal nigral grafts in the caudate and putamen subjected to deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the Globus Pallidus internus (GPi) or subthalamic nucleus (STN).  

The following thirteen regions were identified by the stepwise discriminant analysis of the z-scores as significantly contributing to the differences between the sham and OBX: amygdala, cingulate cortex, caudate putamen at the level of Globus Pallidus, caudate putamen-lateral part, dorsal subiculum, dorsal thalamus, hypothalamus, median raphe, somatosensory cortex, substantia nigra, ventral hippocampus, ventral tegmental area and the ventral thalamus.  

We report on a female patient with Tourette syndrome and a 12-month follow-up after chronic deep brain stimulation in the Globus Pallidus internus which resulted in excellent remission of motor and vocal tics..  

Within these tissues, the distribution varied widely between the putamen (PT) and the Globus Pallidus, and this was attributed to differences in vector transport.  

Also, DOPAC levels were significantly increased by 150% ipsilateral (right) to NTN infusion in the Globus Pallidus, while HVA levels were elevated bilaterally in the NTN-treated animals by 10% on the left and 67% on the right hemisphere.  

In the process of a DTI study, a series of diffusion-weighted images (DWI) is collected, and while not normally considered as a major dependent variable in research studies, they are used clinically and they reveal striking conspicuity of the Globus Pallidus and putamen caused by signal loss in these structures, presumably due to iron accumulation with age. The present study used legacy DTI data collected in 10 younger (22-37 years) and 10 older (65-79 years) men and women at 3.0T and fast spin-echo (FSE) data collected at 1.5T and 3.0T to derive an estimate of the field-dependent relaxation rate increase (the "FDRI estimate") in the putamen, caudate nucleus, Globus Pallidus, thalamus, and a frontal white matter sample comparison region.  

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the posteroventral Globus Pallidus internus (GPi) may offer a treatment option for patients with diskinetic phenotype and minimal cognitive impairment, but its role in the management of HD remains unclear and to date only two cases have been reported.  

Measurements in the caudate nucleus, putamen, and Globus Pallidus yielded globally different apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values between drug treated patients with TD and control subjects but the magnetization transfer ratios showed no significant variations.  

No labelled cells were seen in the Globus Pallidus. This paper considers the failure to identify entopeduncular neurons projecting to the rostrolateral thalamus in a mammal with a little differentiated cerebral cortex, and also stresses the discrepancy between this absence and the presence of a distinct external pallidal segment (Globus Pallidus)..  

fMRI analysis revealed that bilateral activations in anterior insula (BA45), parietal operculum (S2: BA40), premotor area, medial Globus Pallidus, inferior occipital gyrus (BA18), left temporal association cortex, right fusiform gyrus, right parietal association cortex and cerebellum occurred due to the task in the preconditioned group.  

A progressive model of Parkinson's disease has been recently developed in the rat where a unilateral excitotoxic injection into the Globus Pallidus leads to a gradual loss of dopaminergic neurons in the ipsilateral substantia nigra over a period of at least 6 weeks. The immunosuppressant drug tacrolimus (FK506) reduces dopamine cell death at 3 weeks following a Globus Pallidus lesion, but not thereafter.  

The microdialysis probes were unilaterally lowered into the Globus Pallidus (GP) and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr).  

RESULTS: The most frequently involved site, seen as high signal intensity on T2-W images, was the corpus callosum (20 patients), followed by the dentate nucleus (16 patients) and the Globus Pallidus (13 patients). CONCLUSION: Concurrent involvement of the Globus Pallidus-crus cerebri-red nucleus-dentate nucleus axis was the main MR pattern in end-stage hepatic encephalopathy, which connected with various areas of the brain.  

METHODS: Twenty-five genetically confirmed DYT1 dystonia patients (age range, 8-66 years; mean age, 22 years) underwent brain MRI under general anesthesia at the time of Globus Pallidus internus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. RESULTS: Seventeen patients out of 25 (68%) exhibited T(1)-weighted hypointense/T(2)-weighted hyperintense signal abnormalities in the putamen and Globus Pallidus on MR images. CONCLUSIONS: T(1)-hypointense/T(2)-hyperintense signal abnormalities are common findings in the putamen and Globus Pallidus of DYT1 patients but do not contraindicate DBS.  

Recent imaging studies suggest that the Globus Pallidus (GP) is involved in the generation of antisaccades.  

After Globus Pallidus deep brain stimulation (DBS) at the age of 11 years, the patient regained useful motor function and speech with a marked decrease in the severity of the dystonia. Our case is the sixth case with classical PKAN that was treated by Globus Pallidus stimulation, the fifth one to have a favorable response to it and the only one in whom response was proven by the inadvertent removal of the DBS device due to infection.  

Together the present observations suggest (i) early PSP-like lesions in the striatum, followed by the Globus Pallidus/subthalamus and selected nuclei of the brain stem; (ii) early involvement of neurons and astrocytes, but late appearance of tufted astrocytres; and (iii) oxidative damage of glial acidic protein in the striatum..  

In addition, regions-of-interest were defined and a significant change in water content with disease grade was found in the frontal and occipital white matter, the Globus Pallidus, the anterior limb of the internal capsule and the putamen.  

Globus Pallidus, caudate putamen, thalamus and substantia nigra.  

This study investigated motivational changes in a 44 year-old man (PJ) who developed considerable reduction in spontaneous activity and speech, flat affect, social withdrawal, loss of interest, inability to "feel," and lack of concern regarding his medical condition after bilateral, focal, anoxic lesions of the Globus Pallidus. Active withdrawal from liked stimuli could constitute the basic mechanism underlying poor motivation and social withdrawal associated with Globus Pallidus damage..  

OBJECTIVE: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the Globus Pallidus internus (GPi) is an effective treatment for medically refractory primary dystonia. METHODS: Twenty-three consecutive patients (mean age 41 years, range 9-68 years, male to female ratio 11:12) with severe dystonia were operated using a combination of FSE-IR imaging for direct visualization of the Globus Pallidus internus with stereotactic, gadolinium-enhanced T1-MPRage images.  

Changes consistent with increased iron deposition were identified in the Globus Pallidus and substantia nigra.  

RESULTS: In most cases of PKAN, abnormalities were restricted to Globus Pallidus and substantia nigra, with 100% having an eye of the tiger sign. In INAD, Globus Pallidus and substantia nigra were involved on T2* and FSE scans, with dentate involvement only seen on T2*. By contrast, neuroferritinopathy had consistent involvement of the dentate nuclei, Globus Pallidus, and putamen, with confluent areas of hyperintensity due to probable cavitation, involving the pallida and putamen in 52%, and a subset having lesions in caudate nuclei and thalami.  

Basal ganglia possess high levels of adenosine A(2A) receptors, mainly on the external surfaces of neurons located at the indirect tracts between the striatum, Globus Pallidus, and substantia nigra.  

Three microdialysis probes were simultaneously implanted in the dopamine-depleted striatum, Globus Pallidus and substantia nigra reticulata of 6-hydroxydopamine hemilesioned rats.  

Opioid peptides mRNA in the dorsolateral striatum (dlStr) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) mRNA content in Globus Pallidus (GP), were evaluated as an index of neuroadaptive changes occurring in the direct and indirect basal ganglia pathways.  

Leads were placed into the subthalamic nucleus, ventral intermediate nucleus, Globus Pallidus interna, and anterior thalamic nucleus.  

OBJECTIVE: Deep brain stimulation of the Globus Pallidus internus has been used for the treatment of various forms of dystonia, but the factors influencing postoperative outcomes remain unknown. METHODS: Postoperative magnetic resonance scans of 13 patients with cervical dystonia, six patients with generalized dystonia, and five patients with Parkinson's disease who underwent Globus Pallidus internus deep brain stimulation were analyzed. CONCLUSION: The location of the active contacts used for Globus Pallidus internus deep brain stimulation was similar in patients with cervical dystonia, generalized dystonia, and Parkinson's disease..  

We recorded local field potential (LFP) activity during a choice reaction time task in 11 patients with dystonia undergoing implantation of the internal Globus Pallidus for therapeutic stimulation.  

In this study we measured GFAP expression using immunocytochemistry method, to evaluate glial evolution 10 days after a chronic exposure (5 days a week for 24 weeks) to GSM signal for 45 min/day at a brain-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR)=1.5 W/kg and for 15 min/day at a SAR=6 W/kg in the following rat brain areas: prefrontal cortex (PfCx), caudate putamen (Cpu), lateral Globus Pallidus of striatum (LGP), dentate gyrus of hippocampus (DG) and cerebellum cortex (CCx).  

We investigated levels of mRNA for three neurexins (Nrxn) and three neuroligins (Nlgn) in the Globus Pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra, in control conditions and after short-term exposure to cocaine. The development of short-term cocaine appetence induced an increase in Nrxn3beta expression in the Globus Pallidus.  

Flow-metabolism dissociation was also evident at the regional level, with LD-mediated reductions in CMR and increases in CBF in the putamen/Globus Pallidus, dorsal midbrain/pons, STN, and ventral thalamus.  

A post mortem biochemical analysis revealed a decrease in serotonin content in the prelimbic and infralimbic cortices, caudate-putamen (but not nucleus accumbens), Globus Pallidus and substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area, as well as a decrease in dopamine content in the caudate-putamen in STN-lesioned compared with sham rats.  

These measures correlated (P < 0.007) with glucose metabolism in the putamen and Globus Pallidus, which receive projections from this structure.  

We used pathway-tracing techniques to compare directly the targets of Area X and MSt with those of the lateral striatum (LSt) and Globus Pallidus (GP).  

Since then, multiple targets have been used in a small number of patients, including the Globus Pallidus pars interna and the nucleus accumbens.  

The mechanism by which Globus Pallidus pars interna (GPi) DBS improves dystonia is still unclear.  

Other targets were therefore investigated, and the procedure was applied to the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the internal Globus Pallidus (GPi).  

Did this occur because pallidotomy was not effective or safe, or because DBS was found to be more effective and safer? This review focuses on the evidence-and its quality-supporting the effectiveness and safety of pallidotomy for PD and dystonia, and the comparative effectiveness and safety of DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and Globus Pallidus pars interna (GPi).  

Moreover, AAV vectors exhibited nonuniform transduction patterns in striatal neuronal populations, as well as axonal transport leading to transduction and neuronal cell death in the Globus Pallidus and substantia nigra (SN).  

When PD conditions like reduced dopamine and altered dynamics of the subthalamic nucleus and Globus Pallidus externa subsystems are simulated, the handwriting produced by the model manifested characteristic PD handwriting distortions like micrographia and velocity fluctuations.  

METHODS: This review analyzes the effects of early surgical procedures to treat hyperkinesia and the current methods and targets used to combat LID in Parkinson's disease, which are mainly thalamotomy, pallidotomy, and deep brain stimulation of the Globus Pallidus internus and the subthalamic nucleus. RESULTS: Available information indicates that surgery of the Globus Pallidus internus and thalamus (the pallidal receiving area) and of the subthalamic nucleus has a pronounced antidyskinetic effect.  

This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the integrity of the Globus Pallidus (GP) is critical for neurotrophic factor, such as glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), induced functional changes in rhesus macaques with MPTP-induced parkinsonism, because our previous studies demonstrated that the GP was one of the most affected areas as assessed by the levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites.  

Brain sites that have been implicated in the mediation of addictive cannabinoid properties include primarily the ventral tegmental area, the nucleus accumbens, and the medial prefrontal cortex, although the amygdala, the substantia nigra, the Globus Pallidus, and the hippocampus have also been shown to be critical structures mediating motivational and reinforcing effects of cannabinoids.  

caudate-putamen and Globus Pallidus) responses. Globus Pallidus, substantia nigra), as were the levels of endocannabinoids and related N-acylethanolamines (e.g.  

The authors present the effectiveness of bilateral Globus Pallidus internus (GPi) stimulation in one patient with primary DYT-1 positive dystonia.  

We quantified the changes in bursting activity of Globus Pallidus internus (GPi) and externus (GPe) neurons before and during ineffective (subtherapeutic) and effective (therapeutic) STN DBS in two monkeys rendered parkinsonian by the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP).  

Acute treatment with METH (3 mg/kg, subcutaneouly (s.c.)) and MK-801 (>0.3 mg/kg, s.c.) significantly disrupted PPI, accompanied by the suppression of c-Fos expression in lateral Globus Pallidus induced by PPI.  

Instrument-based studies for movement alteration detection after simultaneous ablation of the Globus Pallidus and the subthalamic nucleus of these two patients showed greater sensitivity than clinical evaluation alone.  

Recent clinicopathological studies showed much more severe and more widespread tau pathology in Richardson's syndrome (RS), clinically manifest by early onset, falls, supranuclear gaze palsy, dementia and shorter disease duration than in atypical PSP-parkinsonism (PSP-P) often mimicking Parkinson's disease, in which tau pathology is relatively restricted to substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus and internal Globus Pallidus.  

The persistent effects of unilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the Globus Pallidus interna (GPi) or subthalamic nucleus (STN) on specific movement parameters produced by Parkinson's disease (PD) patients are poorly understood.  

The combined pattern included reductions in bilateral dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal and superior temporal sulcal regions with areas of relative preservation in vicinities of the cerebellum, Globus Pallidus, visual cortex, and parietal cortex in old compared with young RMs.  

BACKGROUND: Pallidal deep brain stimulation (DBS) of Globus Pallidus internus (Gpi) has emerged as an effective treatment for dystonia.  

In 85%, MRI-brain showed bilateral hyperintense substantia nigra and Globus Pallidus on T1-weighted images.  

Direct correlations were shown for the first time between BDNF-mediated attenuation of behavioural impairment and the integrity of the Globus Pallidus, seemingly independent from the severity of striatal lesioning.  

T(1)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed symmetric hyperintensity in the Globus Pallidus and in the substantia nigra and innominata in all 10 active methcathinone users.  

This study describes the topography, borders and divisions of the Globus Pallidus in the Brazilian short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and distribution of the three calcium binding proteins, parvalbumin (PV), calbindin D-28k (CB) and calretinin (CR) in that nucleus. The Globus Pallidus of the opossum consists of medial and lateral parts that are visible with Nissl or Timm's staining and also in PV and CR immunostained sections. Neurons of the Globus Pallidus expressing these proteins were classified into three types on the basis of size and shape of their soma and dendritic tree. Labeling for CB resulted mainly in the light staining of neuropil in both parts of the nucleus, while the CB-expressing cells (mainly of the type 2) were scarce and placed only along the border of the Globus Pallidus and putamen. Close to the border of Globus Pallidus with the putamen these fibers (probably dendrites) were long, thin and varicous, while more medially bundles of thick, short and smooth fibers predominated. Single CR-ir neurons (all of the type 3) were scattered through the Globus Pallidus. Therefore, the Globus Pallidus in the opossum, much as that in the rat, consists of a heterogeneous population of neurons, probably playing diversified functions..  

We assessed biochemical endpoints indicative of oxidative stress and excitotoxicity in the cerebellum, frontal cortex, caudate, Globus Pallidus, olfactory cortex, and putamen. GLT-1 and GLAST were relatively unaffected by short term Mn exposure, except in the Globus Pallidus where exposure for 33 days led to decreased protein levels, which persisted after 45 days of recovery for both proteins and 90 days of recovery in the case of GLAST. Finally, TH protein levels were significantly lowered in the Globus Pallidus of the monkeys exposed for 33 days but mRNA levels were significantly increased in this same region.  

Here, we explored how activation of mGluRs in Globus Pallidus (GP) affected the amphetamine-induced rotational behavior in the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion rat model of PD.  

Treatment with the L-NOARG significantly reduced 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic damage in the dorsal striatum, ventral substantia nigra and lateral Globus Pallidus, but had no effects in the dorsal substantia nigra and in the cingulate cortex.  

Target nuclei have mainly three structures: the nucleus ventrointermedius externus of the thalamus (Vim), the Globus Pallidus internum (GPi) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN).  

Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA), or Hallervorden- Spatz disease, is an extremely rare autosomal recessive disorder with cysteine-iron complex accumulation in Globus Pallidus, seen histopathologically.  

Whole blood manganese levels were correlated with the development of manganese deposits in the Globus Pallidus on T1-weighted images on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. Globus Pallidus hyperintensity on T1-weighted images was noted in 1 patient on MRI; this patient had a sharp rise in the postoperative manganese level.  

We have recently demonstrated how antagonism of adenosine A(2A) receptors within the Globus Pallidus (GP) ipsilateral to dopaminergic denervation potentiates contralateral rotational behavior induced by the dopamine precursor L-DOPA in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned hemiparkinsonian rats.  

Large-deformation, high-dimensional brain mapping was used to obtain surface representations of the caudate, putamen, and Globus Pallidus. RESULTS: In the caudate, putamen, and Globus Pallidus, the degree of shape abnormality observed in the siblings of the schizophrenia subjects was intermediate between the schizophrenia and control subjects. In the schizophrenia subjects, significant correlations were observed between measures of caudate, putamen, and Globus Pallidus structure and the selected measures of lifetime psychopathology.  

Reciprocally connected glutamatergic subthalamic nucleus (STN) and GABAergic external Globus Pallidus (GP) neurons normally exhibit weakly correlated, irregular activity but following the depletion of dopamine in Parkinson's disease they express more highly correlated, rhythmic bursting activity.  

Activation in the striatum and external Globus Pallidus (GPe) scaled linearly with the duration of force under visual and auditory feedback conditions, with similar slopes and intercepts across feedback type. The pattern of signal change for the internal Globus Pallidus (GPi) and subthalamic nucleus (STN) was nonlinear and parameters of the exponential function were altered by feedback type.  

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was applied in the internal segment of the Globus Pallidus (GPi) to treat dystonia in 10 patients.  

The study also investigates the effect of this variability on the localization of targets like the subthalamic nucleus, ventralis intermedius nucleus and Globus Pallidus internus. These data also show that, even for experienced neurosurgeons, variations in selecting the AC and the PC point result in substantial variations at the target points: 1.15 +/- 0.89 mm, 1.45 +/- 1.25 mm, 1.21 +/- 0.83 for the subthalamic nucleus, ventralis intermedius nucleus, and Globus Pallidus internus, respectively, for the first MRI volumeand 1.08 +/- 1.37 mm, 1.35 +/- 1.71 mm, 1.12 +/- 1.17 mm for the same structures for the second volume.  

In controls, the left caudate putamen (CPu) contains lower kainate and the left Globus Pallidus higher AMPA densities than their right counterparts.  

PAG608 expression was markedly induced in fibers and neuronal cells of the lateral Globus Pallidus and reticular thalamic nucleus adjacent to internal capsule, specifically in the parkinsonian side of L-DOPA-treated models.  

In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to investigate the topographical localization of HRD1 in the brain and demonstrated that HRD1 immunoreactivity was expressed widely in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC) containing dopaminergic neurons and was expressed in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, dentate gyrus, striatum, Globus Pallidus, and Purkinje cells of the cerebellar cortex.  

The potencies of 5-CT on the presynaptic effects were 20- to 25-fold higher than on postsynaptic effects, suggesting that 5-HT mainly modulates presynaptic sites in the Globus Pallidus.  

Those that express dopamine D2 receptors (D2+) project to the Globus Pallidus external and are thought to inhibit movement, whereas those that express dopamine D1 receptors (D1+) project to the substantia nigra pars reticulata and are thought to facilitate movement.  

Chronic exposure to manganese (Mn) may lead to a movement disorder due to preferential Mn accumulation in the Globus Pallidus and other basal ganglia nuclei.  

Pathological findings show degeneration of the dentate nuclei, Globus Pallidus, and red nuclei, substantia nigra, inferior olivary nuclei, cerebellar cortex, and spinal cord.  

Internal Globus Pallidus (GPi) stimulation can dramatically improve TD. Internal Globus Pallidus stimulation led to a reduction of rCBF (1) during motor execution, in the primary motor and prefrontal cortex and the cerebellum; (2) at rest, in the primary motor and anterior cingulate cortex and supplementary motor area.  

Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with prior radio-frequency lesions in the internal segment of the Globus Pallidus (GPi, pallidotomy), whose symptoms have deteriorated, may be candidates for further invasive treatment such as subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN DBS).  

In the treatment of movement disorders, the potential targets are the thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim), Globus Pallidus internus (GPi), subthalamic nucleus (STN), pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), and thalamic Vo-complex nucleus.  

We observed repetitive bursts or pauses of neuronal firing of the Globus Pallidus synchronized to ballistic movements in patients with hemiballism or chorea, suggesting that phasic neuronal driving in the basal ganglia is important as their pathophysiology..  

We studied the frequency dependency of information transmission in the cortex-BG and cortex-periphery loops by recording simultaneously from multiple electrodes located in the arm-related primary motor cortex (MI) and in the Globus Pallidus (GP) of two vervet monkeys before and after 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treatment and induction of parkinsonian symptoms.  

Output from the entopeduncular nucleus, the feline equivalent of the internal segment of the Globus Pallidus, provides a modest direct input to the red nucleus as well as a more substantial indirect input via projections to the zona incerta and the fields of Forel.  

The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of possible nonlinear interactions between LFP rhythms characterizing the output structure of the basal ganglia, the Globus Pallidus internus, by means of bispectral analysis. The results of this study disclosed that the rhythms expressed in the Globus Pallidus internus of the untreated parkinsonian patient are not independent and, in particular, the low-beta (13-20 Hz) band generates harmonics that are included in the high-beta (20-35 Hz) band. Conversely, in the dystonic Globus Pallidus, as well as in the parkinsonian Globus Pallidus after dopaminergic medication (i.e., in the more "normal" condition), the rhythms are substantially independent and characterized by a strong activity in the low-frequency band that generates a second harmonic (4-14 Hz), mostly included in the same band. The interactions between rhythms in the human Globus Pallidus are therefore different in different pathologies and in different patient's states.  

Microinjections of serotonin and glutamic acid into the Globus Pallidus in conditions of free selection between a light and a dark chamber showed these substances to have antiaversive activity in rats in the "threatening situation" test but not in the "illuminated area" test.  

However, during presentation of the respective sexual stimuli, the thalamus, Globus Pallidus and striatum, which correspond to the key areas of the brain involved in sexual arousal and behaviour, showed significant activation in pedophiles, but not in control subjects.  

In addition, LTBP-3 mRNA is also abundant in the choroid plexus, Globus Pallidus, anterior and reticular thalamic nuclei, mamillary body, substantia nigra, red nucleus, pontine nuclei, some brainstem sensory nuclei, and reticular formation, while LTBP-4 is more abundant in the hippocampus and the parabrachial nuclei.  

We found that the left hemisphere had higher iron levels than the right in the putamen, Globus Pallidus, substantia nigra, thalamus, and frontal white matter.  

Haloperidol decreased GRK3 in ventrolateral caudate-putamen and transiently down-regulated GRK5 in Globus Pallidus and caudal caudate-putamen. Clozapine also caused a short-term suppression of the GRK5 expression in the caudal caudate-putamen and Globus Pallidus, but, unlike haloperidol, elevated GRK5 in the caudal caudate-putamen after 24 h. Unlike haloperidol, clozapine decreased arrestin2 and GRK3 in hippocampus and GRK3 in Globus Pallidus but increased arrestin2 in the core of nucleus accumbens and ventrolateral caudate-putamen and GRK2 in prefrontal cortex.  

Yet there is one undeniable observation: lesioning or high-frequency stimulation of the internal segment of the Globus Pallidus (GP) ameliorates dystonic symptoms.  

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